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Table 4 Comparison of clinical and neurophysiological abnormalities among outcome categories

From: Early impairment of intracranial conduction time predicts mortality in deeply sedated critically ill patients: a prospective observational pilot study

Variables Survivors Non-survivors p value No altered mental status Altered mental status p value
Number of patients—n (%) 49 (57) 37 (43)   14 (22) 49 (78)  
Age (years)—mean (SD) 58 (18) 64 (19) 0.058 58 (20) 60 (20) 0.75
Women—n (%) 19 (39) 10 (27) 0.36 5 (36) 20 (41) >0.99
SAPS II—median (IQR) 48 (37 to 60) 53 (34 to 70) 0.47 45 (28 to 53) 48 (37 to 59) 0.36
Day-3 SOFA—median (IQR) 10 (8 to 12) 13 (10 to 17) 0.004 10 (8 to 12) 10 (8 to 13) 0.96
GCS—median (IQR) 3 (3 to 4) 3 (3 to 3) 0.18 3 (3 to 3) 3 (3 to 5) 0.29
FOUR Score—median (IQR) 4 (3 to 6.5) 4 (0 to 4.0) 0.026 4 (3.2 to 5) 4 (3 to 7) 0.85
Abolition of cough reflex-n (%) 7 (15) 17 (47) 0.003 3 (21) 10 (22) >0.99
RASSa—median (IQR) −5 (−5 to −4) −5 (−5 to −5) 0.001 −5 (−5 to −4) −5 (−5 to −4) 0.95
Brain injured—n (%) 24 (49) 13 (35) 0.27 4 (29) 28 (57) 0.07
Sedative drug used
 Midazolam—n (%) 44 (90) 35 (95) 0.43 13 (93) 44 (90) >0.99
 Sufentanil—n (%) 44 (90) 35 (95) 0.86 13 (93) 44 (90) >0.99
 Propofol—n (%) 9 (18) 0 (0) 0.009 0 (0) 8 (16) 0.18
Conduction times (ms)—mean (SD)
 SSEP N9–N13 IPL 3.8 (0.9) 4 (0.9) 0.17 3.7 (0.6) 3.9 (0.9) >0.99
 SSEP P14–N20 IPL (ICCT)a 5.2 (1.6) 5.6 (1.5) 0.02 5.1 (1.3) 5.4 (1.6) 0.64
 BAEP I–III IPL 2.2 (0.3) 2.4 (0.3) 0.09 2.3 (0.3) 2.3 (0.3) 0.81
 BAEP III–V IPL (IPCT) 2.2 (0.5) 2.3 (0.4) 0.33 2.0 (0.3) 2.3 (0.5) 0.001
Delayed conduction time—n (%)
 SSEP N9–N13 IPL 7 (14) 7 (19) 0.57 1 (7) 6 (12) >0.99
 SSEP P14–N20 IPL 17 (35) 22 (59) 0.029 5 (36) 22 (45) 0.76
 BAEP I–III IPL 9 (18) 8 (22) 0.79 3 (21) 7 (14) 0.68
 BAEP III–V IPL 8 (16) 7 (19) 0.78 0 (0) 12 (24) 0.053
  1. IPL inter-peak latency. ICCT intracranial conduction time, IPCT intra- pontine conduction time; IPL of SSEP or BAEP’s components were scored as “delayed” when they were greater than the “mean + 2.5 SD” of the ones of a healthy control group
  2. aN20 was abolished in three patients. P14–N20 IPL were consequently considered as delayed for these three patients with abolished N20