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Table 2 Odds ratios for the emergence of antipseudomonal antibiotic resistance by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in relation to antibiotic duration

From: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the intensive care unit: association with the duration of antibiotic exposure and mode of administration

Antibiotic duration Number of patients Events (%) Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) adjusted for age, gender and SAPS 3 scores Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) adjusted for age, gender, SAPS 3 scores and length of stay
Piperacillin–tazobactam (n = 176)
 Reference (i.e., use of other antibiotic than piperacillin–tazobactam or no antibiotic) 65 13 (21.2) 1 1
 1–3 days 17 6 (35.3) 2.5 (0.8–8.0) 2.3 (0.7–8.2)
 4–7 days 29 11 (37.9) 2.3 (0.8–6.1) 2.2 (0.7–6.4)
 8–15 days 34 9 (26.5) 1.5 (0.6–4.1) 1.5 (0.5–4.3)
 >15 days 29 16 (55.2) 4.7 (1.8–12.4) 1.7 (0.6–5.3)
Ceftazidime (n = 171)
 Reference (i.e., use of other antibiotic than ceftazidime or no antibiotic) 99 22 (22.2) 1 1
 1–3 days 13 0 NA NA
 4–7 days 12 8 (66.7) 1.7 (0.4–6.6) 1.7 (0.4–7.4)
 8–15 days 34 14 (41.2) 2.6 (1.1–6.0) 1.7 (0.7–4.3)
 >15 days 13 7 (53.8) 3.4 (1.0–12.4) 0.7 (0.2–3.4)
Ciprofloxacin (n = 128)
 Reference (i.e., use of other antibiotic than ciprofloxacin or no antibiotic) 78 7 (9) 1 1
 1–3 days 18 2 (5.6) 1.5 (0.3–7.9) 2.0 (0.3–11.7)
 4–7 days 10 0 0 0
 8–15 days 13 3 (23.1) 2.7 (0.5–13.3) 1.4 (0.2–850)
 >15 days 9 5 (55.6) 14.5 (2.8–75.0) 1.9 (0.2–15.6)
Meropenem (n = 123)
 Reference (i.e., use of other antibiotic than meropenem or no antibiotic) 64 3 (4.7) 1 1
 1–3 days 13 0 (0) 0.0 0.0
 4–7 days 9 2 (5.6) 4.9 (0.7–37.2) 3.4 (0.4–30.2)
 8–15 days 21 17 (81.0) 104.5 (19.8–551.0) 79.1 (14.9–421.0)
 >15 days 16 5 (31.2) 10.0 (2.0–49.5) 4.6 (1.7–32.2)
Amikacin (n = 148)
 Reference (i.e., use of other antibiotic than amikacin or no antibiotic) 87 10 (11.5) 1 1
 1–3 days 41 7 (17.1) 1.3 (0.4–4.2) 0.7 (0.2–2.6)
 4–7 days 13 1 (7.7) 0.3 (0.03–3.0) 0.1 (0.01–2.2)
 8–15 days 7 1 (14.3) 0.5 (0.05–5.1) 0.1 (0.01–2.9)
 >15 days 0 0 0.0 0.0
  1. Statistically significant at p < 0.05