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Table 1 General patient characteristics stratified by quartiles of mean CVP level during the first 72 h from ICU admission

From: Association between elevated central venous pressure and outcomes in critically ill patients

  Quartiles of mean CVP level
1 (n = 2281) 2 (n = 2269) 3 (n = 2277) 4 (n = 2263)
Mean CVP/mmHg 7.4 (1.9) 10.6 (1.9) 13.1 (2.2) 17.4 (4.1)
Median CVP/mmHg 7 10 13 16
Age (years) 67.1 (15.8) 66.9 (15.9) 65.8 (15.5) 64.4 (15.4)
Sex, male 1070 (57.9%) 1088 (58.9%) 1046 (56.7%) 1007 (54.6%)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Asian 33 (1.8%) 40 (2.2%) 21 (1.1%) 37 (2.0%)
 Black 101 (5.5%) 114 (6.2%) 99 (5.4%) 119 (6.4%)
 White 1326 (71.8%) 1301 (70.5%) 1297 (70.3%) 1293 (70.1%)
 Latino 47 (2.5%) 41 (2.2%) 58 (3.1%) 57 (3.1%)
 Other 341 (18.5%) 350 (19.0%) 370 (20.1%) 339 (18.4%)
ICU type
 Medical 437 (23.6%) 440 (23.8%) 481 (26.1%) 601 (32.6%)
 Surgical 335 (18.1%) 238 (12.9%) 272 (14.7%) 293 (15.9%)
 Trauma surgical 227 (12.3%) 198 (10.7%) 203 (11.0%) 167 (9.1%)
 Cardiac surgery recovery 647 (35.0%) 739 (40.0%) 654 (35.4%) 558 (30.2%)
 Coronary 202 (10.9%) 231 (12.5%) 235 (12.7%) 226 (12.2%)
Comorbidities
 Congestive heart failure 265 (14.3%) 277 (15.0%) 359 (19.5%) 363 (19.7%)
 Cardiac arrhythmias 288 (15.6%) 291 (15.8%) 328 (17.8%) 408 (22.1%)
 Hypertension 134 (7.3%) 170 (9.2%) 162 (8.8%) 659 (34.2%)
 Valvular disease 88 (4.8%) 78 (4.2%) 117 (6.3%) 119 (6.4%)
 Pulmonary circulation disease 63 (3.4%) 54 (2.9%) 78 (4.2%) 100 (5.4%)
 Renal failure 167 (9.0%) 199 (10.8%) 202 (10.9%) 310 (16.8%)
Admission status
 Admission SAPS, points 20.6 (4.7) 21.2 (4.8) 21.9 (4.9) 23.0 (4.9)
 Mean duration of CVP measurement (h) 40.55 (19.78) 22.88 (10.27) 51.25 (16.97) 60.24 (12.56)
 Mean duration of ECVP10 (h) 5.65 (6.10) 20.60 (11.54) 35.70 (16.06) 47.90 (17.55)
ICU outcome
 28-day mortality (%) 15.4 16.8 17.3 22.8
 Length of hospitalization (day) 15.4 (14.1) 15.4 (13.4) 16.1 (13.3) 17.8 (15.8)
 Length of ICU stay (day) 6.9 (7.1) 7.8 (8.0) 9.3 (9.7) 11.0 (10.9)
Selected laboratory test
 WBC max, k/μL 19.1 (9.7) 19.9 (11.1) 20.4 (16.2) 21.4 (12.7)
 Lactate max (mmol/L) 2.9 (2.6) 3.2 (3.1) 3.6 (3.2) 4.9 (4.5)
 Creatinine max (mg/dL) 1.9 (1.9) 2.1 (2.0) 2.3 (3.5) 2.8 (2.7)
 Total bilirubin max (μmol/L) 1.7 (4.8) 1.8 (4.3) 2.4 (5.9) 4.0 (8.2)
Treatment received
 Duration of vasopressor (day) 1.8 (4.4) 2.6 (5.4) 3.6 (7.1) 4.9 (8.4)
 Duration of ventilator (day) 3.8 (6.9) 4.8 (8.0) 6.5 (9.7) 7.9 (11.0)
 Fluid balance [L, Median (IQR)] 3.9 (0.7, 8.0) 4.6 (1.3, 9.0) 5.3 (2.0, 10.1) 6.8 (3.0, 12.8)
  1. Values are presented as mean (SD), unless otherwise stated
  2. CVP central venous pressure, IQR interquartile range, ICU intensive care unit, WBC white blood cell, SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score