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Table 1 Patient characteristics and cardiopulmonary resuscitation-related parameters

From: Prognostic indicators of survival and survival prediction model following extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with sudden refractory cardiac arrest

  Total (n = 111) Survivors (n = 21) Non-survivors (n = 90) p value
Age (years) 55.9 ± 15.2 47.0 ± 14.8 57.9 ± 14.6 0.003
 ≤56, n (%) 53 (47.7) 16 (76.2) 37 (41.1) 0.004
 >56, n (%) 58 (52.3) 5 (23.8) 53 (58.9)  
Male, n (%) 79 (71.2) 17(80.9) 62 (68.9) 0.272
Location of arrest     0.777
 Out of hospital, n (%) 82 (73.9) 15 (71.4) 67 (74.4)  
 Emergency department, n (%) 29 (26.1) 6 (23.6) 23 (25.6)  
Witnessed arrest, n (%) 95 (85.6) 20 (95.2) 75 (83.3) 0.298
Bystander CPR, n (%) 85 (76.6) 19 (90.5) 66 (73.3) 0.151
First documented rhythm     0.055
 VF/VT, n (%) 53 (47.7) 14 (66.7) 39 (43.3)  
 PEA, n (%) 32 (28.8) 6 (28.6) 26 (28.9)  
 Asystole, n (%) 26 (23.4) 1 (4.8) 25 (27.8)  
Charlson comorbidity score <2 92 (82.9) 18 (85.7) 74 (82.2) >.999
Presumed etiology of arrest     >.999
 Cardiac, n (%) 104 (93.7) 20 (95.2) 84 (93.3)  
 Non-cardiac, n (%) 7 (6.3) 1 (4.8) 6 (6.7)  
Time interval from arrest to CPR start by healthcare provider   3 (0–9) 4 (0–8) 0.987
CPR duration, min 56 (37–81) 51(34–55) 61(42–89) 0.022
 ≤55 53 (47.7) 16 (76.2) 37 (41.1) 0.004
 >55 58 (52.3) 5 (23.8) 53 (58.9)  
Any ROSC event before ECPR, n (%) 39 (35.1) 11 (52.4) 28 (31.1) 0.066
Re-arrest after attaining ROSC ≥ 20 min, n (%) 26 (23.4) 7 (33.3) 19 (21.1) 0.258
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± SD or median (interquartile ranges). Categorical variables are presented as the number (%) of subjects
  2. CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, VF/VT ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular fibrillation, PEA pulseless electrical activity, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, ECPR extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation