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Table 1 Main characteristics (at time of inclusion) and outcomes of the patients with ARDS

From: Endocan as an early biomarker of severity in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

  Total
n = 96
Survivors
n = 64
Non-survivors
n = 32
p Good evolution
n = 54
Poor evolution
n = 42
p
Age (years) 61 ± 17 59 ± 18 66 ± 15 0.045 59 ± 18 64 ± 15 0.219
Male n (%) 64 (67) 44 (69) 20 (63) 0.647 39 (72) 25 (60) 0.275
Trauma n (%) 8 (8) 7 (11) 1 (3) 0.262 5 (9) 3 (7) 1.000
Primary ARDS n (%) 45 (47) 31 (48) 14 (44) 0.828 25 (46) 20 (48) 1.000
Sepsis n (%) 64 (67) 39 (61) 25 (78) 0.111 33 (61) 31 (74) 0.275
Chronic lung disease n (%) 16 (17) 7 (11) 9 (28) 0.044 6 (11) 10 (24) 0.166
Chronic kidney disease n (%) 15 (16) 9 (14) 6 (19) 0.767 7 (13) 8 (19) 0.572
Active cancer n (%) 4 (4) 4 (6) 0 (0) 0.298 3 (6) 1 (2) 0.629
APACHE II score 21 (17–27) 20 (15–24) 27 (22–30) <0.001 20 (15–22) 27 (22–31) <0.001
SOFA score 9 (6–12) 8 (5–11) 9 (7–13) 0.070 8 (4–10) 10 (7–13) 0.004
Respiratory rate (bpm) 24 ± 7 24 ± 7 23 ± 6 0.773 24 ± 7 24 ± 6 0.992
FiO2 (%) 50 (40–60) 50 (50–60) 50 (40–61) 0.913 50 (50–60) 50 (40–60) 0.794
PEEP (cmH20) 8 (5–8) 8 (5–8) 6 (5–10) 0.264 8 (5–8) 6 (5–10) 0.574
Arterial pH 7.38 ± 0.09 7.40 ± 0.08 7.33 ± 0.10 0.002 7.40 ± 0.07 7.35 ± 0.11 0.009
PaO2 (mmHg) 79 (67–98) 79 (65–97) 79 (68–107) 0.724 80 (65–98) 77 (68–97) 0.631
PaCO2 (mmHg) 38 (35–44) 39 (36–44) 38 (32–45) 0.508 40 (36–45) 38 (34–44) 0.252
PaO2/FiO2 ratio 155 (113–206) 158 (110–206) 150 (116–207) 0.946 164 (108–214) 143 (115–198) 0.413
ARDS     0.870    0.600
 Severe ARDS n (%) 15 (16) 11 (17) 4 (12)   9 (17) 6 (14)  
 Moderate ARDS n (%) 56 (58) 36 (56) 20 (63)   29 (54) 27 (64)  
 Mild ARDS n (%) 25 (26) 17 (27) 8 (25)   16 (29) 9 (22)  
MAP (mmHg) 81 ± 13 80 ± 13 83 ± 13 0.379 81 ± 13 82 ± 14 0.645
Heart rate (bpm) 94 ± 21 95 ± 21 92 ± 21 0.456 93 ± 21 96 ± 21 0.520
CVP (mmHg) 10 (8–13) 10 (8–14) 10 (8–12) 0.678 10 (8–13) 10 (9–13) 0.683
Norepinephrine, n (%) 51 (53) 35 (55) 16 (50) 0.828 28 (52) 23 (55) 0.838
Norepinephrine (mcg/Kg/min) 0.02 (0.00–0.22) 0.02 (0.00–0.17) 0.02 (0.00–0.35) 0.676 0.01 (0.00–0.18) 0.07 (0.00–0.30) 0.391
Lactate (mmol/L) 1.7 (1.1–3.0) 1.5 (0.9–2.6) 2.1 (1.3–4.0) 0.024 1.3 (0.9–2.7) 2.1 (1.2–3.3) 0.028
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 0.213 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.2 (0.7–1.7) 0.070
Renal failure n (%) 40 (42) 23 (37) 17 (53) 0.131 16 (30) 24 (57) 0.012
Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 0.7 (0.5–1.7) 0.6 (0.5–1.4) 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 0.037 0.6 (0.5–1.0) 1.1 (0.5–1.9) 0.096
Platelets (x103/µL) 168 (105–225) 182 (107–280) 136 (80–179) 0.011 183 (107–280) 136 (93–183) 0.040
Leukocytes (cells x103/µL) 12.0 (8.5–15.4) 11.2 (7.7–15.3) 12.5 (8.9–16.1) 0.455 11.2 (8.2–15.2) 12.4 (8.7–15.5) 0.624
Duration of mechanical ventilation (days) 4.5 (2.4–8.2) 4.3 (2.5–7.2) 5.6 (2.2–8.6) 0.756 3.6 (1.8–6.2) 7.2 (2.7–16.9) <0.001
ICU length of stay (days) 6.4 (4.4–11.0) 7.1 (4.6–12.4) 6.0 (2.6–9.6) 0.140 6.0 (4.4–8.9) 8.3 (4.1–17.4) 0.109
  1. n number of patients, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, FiO 2 inspired oxygen fraction, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, PaO 2 arterial oxygen pressure, PaCO 2 arterial carbon dioxide pressure, MAP mean arterial pressure, CVP central venous pressure, ICU intensive care unit
  2. Statistically significant p values (<0.05) are shown in italics