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Table 1 Main characteristics of the included studies

From: Comparison of diagnostic accuracy in sepsis between presepsin, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein: a systematic review and meta-analysis

References Country Mean age (years) total or case/control Patient source Sepsis/control (n) Specimen tested Inclusion criteria Controls Reference Tests
Shozushima et al. [17] Japan 62 CCU and ED 101/41 Whole blood Presented to CCU and ED with ≥ 2 criteria for SIRS SIRS (n = 41) ACCP/SCCM 1991 PATHFAST
Endo et al. [29] Japan 75/66 ICU and ED 115/70 Whole blood Presented to ICU or ED with 1 criteria for SIRS Non-infectious (n = 70) Blood culture PATHFAST
Liu et al. [33] China 71/69 ED 680/279 Whole blood Presented to ED with definition of sepsis by ACCP/SCCM SIRS (n = 179)
HC (n = 100)
ACCP/SCCM 2001 PATHFAST
Ulla et al. [38] Italy 71/56 ED 106/83 Plasma Presented to ED with ≥ 2 criteria for SIRS SIRS (n = 83) ACCP/SCCM 1991 PATHFAST
Vodnik et al. [39] Serbia 56/55.15 ED 30/100 Plasma Presented to ED with ≥ 2 criteria for SIRS and intra-abdominal infection SIRS (n = 30)
HC (n = 70)
ACCP/SCCM 1991 PATHFAST
Behnes et al. [25] Germany 68/64 ICU 81/15 Serum Presented to ICU with proven criteria of septic shock SIRS (n = 15) ACCP/SCCM 1991 PATHFAST
Brenner et al. [26] Germany 70/44 ICU 60/60 Plasma Presented to ICU with proven criteria of septic shock HC (n = 30)
Postoperative (n = 30)
ACCP/SCCM 2001 PATHFAST
Romualdo et al. [35] Spain 71/67 ED 37/189 Plasma Presented to ED with SIRS and suspected infection Negative blood cultures in SIRS (n = 189) SSIDCM PATHFAST
Ishikura et al. [31] Japan 67.2 ED 43/39 Whole blood Presented to ED and CCM with ≥ 1 criteria for SIRS Non-sepsis (n = 39) ACCP/SCCM 1991 PATHFAST
Kweon et al. [32] Korea 64.3/56.1 ED 73/45 Whole blood Presented to ED with ≥ 2 criteria for SIRS SIRS (n = 20)
HC (n = 25)
ACCP/SCCM 1991 PATHFAST
Cakir Madenci et al. [27] Turkey 38.5/44 ICU 26/11 Plasma Presented to ICU with burn Burn patients without sepsis (n = 11) ABA PATHFAST
Nakamura et al. [34] Japan 70 ICU 37/75 Serum ICU admission Non-sepsis (n = 75) ACCP/SCCM 1991 PATHFAST
Sargentini et al. [36] Italy 55/53 CCU 60/44 Plasma CCU admission SIRS (n = 14)
HC (n = 30)
ACCP/SCCM 1991 PATHFAST
Godnic et al. [30] Slovenia Not provided ICU 40/7 Plasma Presented to ICU with ≥ 2 criteria for SIRS SIRS (n = 7) Blood culture PATHFAST
Takahashi et al. [37] Japan 80 ED and ICU 359/97 Whole blood Presented to ED with ≥ 1 criteria for SIRS SIRS (n = 97) ACCP/SCCM 1991 PATHFAST
Carpio et al. [28] Peru 34/69 ICU 114/9 Plasma Presented to ICU with SIRS and suspected infection SIRS (n = 9) ACCP/SCCM 1991 PATHFAST
Kada Klouche et al. [41] France 58 ICU 100/44 Plasma Presented to ICU with suspected infection SIRS (n = 44) Sepsis 3.0 PATHFAST
Romualdo et al. [40] Spain 73/69 ED 70/130 Plasma Presented to ED with suspected infection Non-complicated infection (n = 130) Sepsis 3.0 PATHFAST
  1. ABA American Burn Association, ACCP American College of Chest Physicians, ED emergency department, HC healthy control, ICU intensive care unit, postoperative control major abdominal surgery without any evidence of infection, SCCM Society of Critical Care Medicine, SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SSIDCM Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology