Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of study population according to neurological outcome at 3 months

From: Prognostic implications of blood lactate concentrations after cardiac arrest: a retrospective study

Parameter All patients (236) CPC 1–2 (74) CPC 3–5 (162) p value
General
Age (years) 63 ± 15 59 ± 14 64 ± 16 0.03
Male, n (%) 155 (60%) 57 (77%) 98 (61%) 0.02
Comorbidities
COPD/asthma, n (%) 43 (18%) 15 (20%) 28 (17%) 0.59
Heart disease, n (%) 107 (46%) 40 (54%) 67 (42%) 0.09
Diabetes, n (%) 50 (21%) 21 (28%) 29 (18%) 0.08
Chronic renal failure, n (%) 38 (16%) 12 (16%) 26 (16%) 1
Liver cirrhosis, n (%) 14 (6%) 6 (8%) 8 (65%) 0.38
Immunosuppression, n (%) 28 (12%) 5 (7%) 23 (14%) 0.13
Cardiac arrest
OHCA, n (%) 137 (58%) 43 (58%) 94 (58%) 1
VF/VT, n (%) 100 (42%) 57 (77%) 43 (27%) <0.001
Bystander CPR, n (%) 136 (58%) 54 (73%) 82 (52%) 0.03
Time to ROSC (min) 19 ± 14 17 ± 13 20 ± 14 0.10
ABG
Lactate admission (mEq/L) 4.3 [2–8.5] 2.5 [1.5–5.5] 5.3 [2.9–9.0] <0.001
Lactate 6 h (mEq/L) 2.7 [1.6–5] 2.0 [1.3–2.9] 3.3 [1.8–5.9] <0.001
Lactate 12 h (mEq/L) 2.2 [1.4–4.2] 1.6 [1.2–2.3] 2.8 [1.6–5.3] <0.001
Lactate 24 h (mEq/L) 1.5 [1.1–2.8] 1.3 [1.0–1.7] 1.8 [1.3–3.2] <0.001
Lactate 48 h (mEq/L) 1.4 [1.0–2.0] 1.1 [0.8–1.7] 1.6 [1.1–2.5] 0.001
aDLC0-6 (mEq/L*h) 0.2 [0–0.6] 0.1 [0–0.5] 0.2 [0–0.6] 0.16
aDLC0-12 (mEq/L*h) 0.1 [0–0.3] 0.1 [0–0.2] 0.2 [0–0.4] 0.006
aDLC0-24 (mEq/L*h) 0.1 [0–0.3] 0.1 [0–0.1] 0.1 [0–0.3] 0.008
rDLC0-6 (%) 25 [−5 to 54] 24 [−8 to 56] 24 [−5 to 53] 0.98
rDLC0-12 (%) 37 [2–62] 28 [−7 to 59] 40 [33–47] 0.08
rDLC0-24 (%) 53 [18–71] 48 [25–68] 55 [17–77] 0.64
AUC0-48, mEq/L*h 4.7 ± 4.2 3.74 ± 2.53 5.17 ± 4.72 0.016
Peak lactate, mEq/L 5 [3–9] 3.6 [2.2–6.3] 6.7 [3.8–10.2] <0.001
pH on admission 7.25 [7.16–7.36] 7.27 [7.18–7.37] 7.25 [7.15–7.34] 0.09
PaO2 on admission (mmHg) 121 [77–228] 143 [84–220] 118 [77–232] 0.54
PaCO2 on admission (mmHg) 42 ± 14 43 ± 12 42 ± 15 0.41
Haemodynamics
HR on admission (bpm) 89 ± 21 89 ± 19 88 ± 22 0.75
MAP on admission (mmHg) 90 ± 24 98 ± 23 88 ± 24 0.004
Vasopressors/inotropes on admission 130 (55%) 30 (40%) 100 (62%) 0.003
Vasopressors/inotropes at 6 h 139 (59%) 32 (43%) 107 (66%) 0.01
Vasopressors/inotropes at 12 h 150 (64%) 37 (50%) 113 (70%) 0.003
Vasopressors/inotropes at 24 h 129 (60%) 37 (50%) 92 (66%) 0.03
Vasopressors/inotropes at 48 h 131 (61%) 32 (43%) 99 (71%) <0.001
SOFA scores
SOFA score on admission 4 [2–7] 4 [2–5] 4 [2–8] 0.08
cSOFA admission 2 [0–4] 0 [0–3] 3 [0–4] 0.003
hSOFA admission 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–1] 0.001
hSOFA maximum 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–1] 0.001
Interventions
IABP, n (%) 18 (8%) 9 (12%) 9 (5.6%) 0.19
ECMO, n (%) 15 (6%) 2 (3%) 13 (8%) 0.15
CRRT, n (%) 32 (14%) 3 (4%) 29 (18%) 0.004
Outcomes
ICU LOS (days) 3 [1–6] 5 [3–11] 2 [1–4] <0.001
Neurological cause of death 87 (36%) 87 (54%) <0.001
  1. CPC Cerebral Performance Category, CPC 1–2 favourable outcome, CPC 3–5 poor outcome, MAP mean arterial pressure, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment (without the neurological subscore), cSOFA cardiovascular SOFA score, ICU intensive care unit, LOS length of stay, HR heart rate, ABG arterial blood gas analysis, aDLC absolute decrease in lactate concentration over time expressed as mEq/L*h, rDLC relative decrease in lactate concentration over time expressed as %, AUC 0-48 area under the curve of lactate concentrations for the first 48 h after admission, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IABP intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, hSOFA hepatic SOFA subscore, VF/VT ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia, OHCA out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation