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Table 3 Characteristics of patients according to arrest location (out of hospital [OHCA] vs. in hospital [IHCA])

From: Prognostic implications of blood lactate concentrations after cardiac arrest: a retrospective study

Parameter OHCA (137) IHCA (99) P value
General
Age 61 ± 15 63 ± 15 040
Male 92 (67%) 64 (64%) 0.78
Comorbidities
COPD/asthma, n (%) 24 (17%) 19 (19%) 0.74
Heart disease, n (%) 62 (45%) 45 (45%) 1.00
Diabetes, n (%) 31 (23%) 19 (19%) 0.63
Chronic renal failure, n (%) 21 (15%) 17 (17%) 0.51
Liver cirrhosis, n (%) 6 (4%) 8 (8%) 0.27
Immunosuppression, n (%) 17 (12%) 11 (11%) 0.84
Cardiac arrest
VF/VT 65 (47%) 35 (35%) 0.086
Bystander CPR 57 (42%) 79 (80%) <0.001
Time to ROSC (min) 21.4 ± 12.8 16.7 ± 14.3 0.011
ABG
Lactate admission (mEq/L) 4.3 [2.2–7.9] 4.8 [1.9–8.6] 0.81
Lactate 6 h (mEq/L) 2.7 [1.7–4.7] 2.7 [1.6–5.5] 0.51
Lactate 12 h (mEq/L) 2.2 [1.5–4.2] 2.3 [1.4–4.1] 0.78
Lactate 24 h (mEq/L) 1.5 [1.1–3.0] 1.4 [1.0–2.5] 0.605
Lactate 48 h (mEq/L) 1.4 [1.0–2.0] 1.4 [1.0–2.3] 0.415
aDLC0-6 (mEq/L*h) .150 [−.03 to .583] .167 [0–.517] 0.88
aDLC0-12 (mEq/L*h) 0.14 [0–0.3] 0.12 [0–0.3] 0.55
aDLC0-24 (mEq/L*h) .075 [.004–.192] .073 [.018–.228] 0.469
rDLC0-6 (%) 28 [−9 to 55] 22 [0–50] 0.75
rDLC0-12 (%) 38 [0–64] 33 [7–61] 0.65
rDLC0-24 (%) 51.6 [10.5–75.3] 56 [25.5–70.5] 0.558
AUC0-48, mEq/L*h 4.6 ± 4 4.7 ± 4.4 0.901
Peak lactate, mEq/L 6.4 ± 3.8 6.9 ± 5.2 0.001
pH admission 7.25 [7.16–7.34] 7.27 [7.19–7.40] 0.038
PaO2 admission (mmHg) 124 [82–228] 116 [70–234] 0.289
PaCO2 admission (mmHg) 43.5 ± 14.8 40.4 ± 12.7 0.101
Haemodynamics
HR admission 87 ± 22 91 ± 19 0.120
MAP admission (mmHg) 96 ± 25 84 ± 20 <0.001
Vasopressors/inotropes admission 60 (44%) 70 (71%) <0.001
Vasopressors/inotropes 6 h 67 (49%) 72 (73%) <0.001
Vasopressors/inotropes 12 h 75 (55%) 75 (75%) 0.001
Vasopressors/inotropes 24 h 66 (52%) 63 (73%) 0.002
Vasopressors/inotropes 48 h 68 (53%) 63 (73%) 0.004
SOFA score
SOFA admission 3.5 [2–5] 5 [3–8] <0.001
cSOFA admission 0 [0–4] 3 [0–4] <0.001
hSOFA baseline 0 [0–0] 0 [0–1] <0.001
hSOFA maximum 0 [0–0] 0 [0–1] 0.002
Interventions
IABP, n (%) 9 (7%) 9 (9%) 0.47
ECMO, n (%) 7 (5%) 8 (8%) 0.42
CRRT, n (%) 19 (14%) 13 (13%) 1
Outcomes
ICU LOS (days) 2 [1–6] 4 [1–7] 0.23
Neurological cause of death, n (%) 61 (44%) 26 (26%) 0.008
Poor outcome at 3 months 94 (69%) 68 (69%) 0.711
  1. MAP mean arterial pressure, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment (without the neurological subscore), cSOFA cardiovascular SOFA score, ICU intensive care unit, LOS length of stay, HR heart rate, aDLC absolute decrease in lactate concentration over time expressed as mEq/L*h, rDLC relative decrease in lactate concentration over time expressed as %; AUC 0-48 area under the curve of lactate concentrations for the first 48 h since admission, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IABP intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, hSOFA hepatic SOFA subscore, VF/VT ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia, OHCA out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation