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Table 1 The baseline characteristics of the enrolled patients (n = 510)

From: Effects of combination therapy using antithrombin and thrombomodulin for sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation

Factors Monotherapy group
n = 282
Combination therapy group
n = 228
P value Missing value
Survival at day 28 (%)
 No 81 (28.7) 51 (22.4) 0.127 0
 Yes 201 (71.3) 177 (77.6)   
Age (mean [SD]) 71.7 (14.7) 72.3 (15.6) 0.663 0
Sex (%)
 Female 115 (40.8) 88 (38.6) 0.682 0
 Male 167 (59.2) 140 (61.4)   
Infection focus (n, %)
 Respiratory system 91 (32.3) 60 (26.3) 0.172 0
 Gastrointestinal system 69 (24.5) 66 (28.9) 0.268 0
 Biliary system 35 (12.4) 28 (12.3) 1.000 0
 Urinary system 36 (12.8) 39 (17.1) 0.208 0
 Musculoskeletal 17 (6.0) 7 (3.1) 0.142 0
 Skin and soft tissue 10 (3.5) 7 (3.1) 0.809 0
 Central nerve system 2 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 1.000 0
 Other 13 (4.6) 15 (6.6) 0.337 0
 Unknown 35 (12.4) 20 (8.8) 0.199 0
Surgical intervention 23 (8.2) 34 (14.9) 0.023 0
Non-surgical drainage# 5 (1.8) 10 (4.4) 0.113 0
Baseline SOFA score median [25, 75%]
 Total SOFA 10.0 [7.0, 13.0] 11.0 [8.0, 13.0] 0.062 120
 Coagulation 2.0 [1.0, 3.0] 2.0 [1.0, 3.0] 0.402 15
 Hepatic 0.0 [0.0, 2.0] 0.0 [0.0, 1.0] 0.020 33
 Cardiovascular 2.0 [0.0, 4.0] 3.0 [0.3, 4.0] 0.001 19
 CNS system 2.0 [0.0, 3.0] 2.0 [1.0, 3.0] 0.312 60
 Renal system 1.0 [0.0, 2.0] 1.0 [0.0, 2.0] 0.140 21
 Respiratory system 2.0 [1.0, 3.0] 2.0 [1.0, 3.0] 0.038 88
Baseline DIC score median [25, 75%]
 Total DIC score 5.0 [4.0, 6.0] 5.0 [4.0, 7.0] 0.039 29
 SIRS score (n, %)
  0 point 130 (46.4) 77 (34.4)   
  1 point 150 (53.6) 147 (65.6) 0.006 6
 Platelet score 3.0 [1.0, 3.0] 3.0 [1.0, 3.0] 0.182 1
 FDP score 3.0 [1.0, 3.0] 3.0 [1.0, 3.0] 0.242 14
 PT ratio score (n, %)
  0 point 53 (19.9) 33 (14.5)   
  1 point 214 (80.1) 195 (85.5) 0.123 15
Baseline laboratory score median (SD)
 Platelet count (× 109/L) 99.5 (77.6) 89.6 (68.1) 0.130 1
 FDP (μg/mL) 56.6 (150.3) 48.8 (66.7) 0.526 110
 D-dimer (μg/mL) 26.8 (46.7) 19.7 (29.1) 0.053 121
 PT ratio 1.97 (6.08) 1.55 (0.52) 0.298 15
 Antithrombin activity (%) 49.6 (13.8) 47.3 (12.7) 0.058 17
  1. The data were shown as mean (standard deviation; SD) or median [25th percentile, 75th percentile]
  2. As the SIRS score and the PT ratio score were composed of binary data, Fisher’s exact test was performed
  3. Non-surgical interventions are as follows: percutaneous transcatheter abscess drainage, urinary tract stenting, biliary tract stenting
  4. n number, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, CNS central nervous system, DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation, SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome, FDP fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products, PT prothrombin time
  5. # For the selection of covariates, a variance inflation factor (VIF) was calculated and the covariates with VIF 5 were excluded. Finally, age, sex, baseline SOFA score, baseline DIC score, and antithrombin activityused were selected.