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Table 1 Studies characteristics

From: Piperacillin–tazobactam as alternative to carbapenems for ICU patients

Author/year of publication Study design, region No. of patients, ESBL/total Type of infection (n, %) Bacteria (n, %) ICU (n,  %) ETC/DTC Treatment (n, %) MIC Administration (CI, PI or II) Posology
Apisarnthanarak et al. [52] SC case–control,
2003–2007, Thailand
36/146 UK (36, 100%) E. coli
K. pneumoniae
UK ETC (36, 100%) Cephalosporins (17, 47.2%)
BL/BLI (10, 27.8%)
Carbapenem (5, 13.9%)
Fluoroquinolones (4, 11.1%)
N UK UK
Balakrishnan et al. [94] MC retrospective cohort, 2008–2010, United Kingdom 42/42 UK UK UK DTC (42, 100%) Temocillin (42, 100%) Y II Y
Bin et al. [95] SC prospective cohort, 2002–2005, China 22/22 IIA (11, 50%)
Primary bacteraemia (6, 27.2%)
UTI (5, 22.7%)
E. coli (22, 100%) UK DTC (22, 100%) Carbapenem (8, 36.4%)
Cephalosporins (7, 31.8%)
BL/BLI (7, 31.8%)
Y Y UK
Chaubey et al. [96] MC prospective cohort, 2000–2007, Canada 79/79 Primary bacteraemia (39, 49.3%)
UTI (38, 48.1%)
Pneumonia (2, 2.5%)
IIA (1, 1.3%)
E. coli (72, 91.1%)
K. pneumoniae (7, 8.9%)
UK ETC (74, 93.7%)
DTC (79, 100%)
Carbapenem (16, 20.2%)
BL/BLI (16, 20.2%)
Aminoglycosides (16, 20.2%)
Fluoroquinolones (16, 20.2%)
Cephalosporins (16, 20.2%)
Carbapenem (16, 20.2%)
BL/BLI (16, 20.2%)
Fluoroquinolones (16, 20.2%)
Sulfamides (16, 20.2%)
Aminoglycosides (16, 20.2%)
N UK UK
Chopra et al. [50] MC retrospective cohort, 2005–2007, USA 145/145 UK E. coli (24, 16.6%)
K. pneumoniae (121, 83.4%)
Y (37, 25,5%) ETC (128, 88.2%)
DTC (110)
Cephalosporins (85, 58.6%)
Carbapenem (50, 34.4%)
Fluoroquinolones (6, 3.9%)
Aminoglycosides (4, 3.1%)
Carbapenem (103, 70.9%)
Cephalosporins (41, 28.2%)
BL/BLI (24, 16.4%)
Fluoroquinolones (17, 11.8%)
Amikacin (17, 11.8%)
Tigecycline (12, 8.2%)
Y UK UK
Chung et al. [97] SC retrospective cohort, 2005–2010, Taiwan 122/122 UTI (47, 38.5%)
Primary bacteraemia (21, 17.2%)
IIA (22, 18%)
Pneumonia (6, 4.9%)
CVC (6, 4.9%)
Skin and soft tissue (4, 3.3%)
Surgical site infection (3, 2.5%)
Other (13, 10.7%)
E. coli (122, 100%) UK DTC (107 87.7%) Carbapenem (71, 57.9%)
Non-BL/BLI (48, 39.3%)
BL/BLI (3, 2.8%)
N UK UK
De Rosa et al. [98] SC retrospective cohort, 2000–2007, Italy 128/128 Primary bacteraemia (61, 47.6%)
IIA (55, 43%)
UTI (12, 9.4%)
E. coli (80, 62.5%)
K. pneumoniae (28, 21.9%)
P. mirabilis (20, 15.6%)
Y (8, 6.3%) ETC (97 75.8%) Carbapenem (101, 79.3%)
BL/BLI (10, 8.2%)
Fluoroquinolone (8, 6.2%)
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (1, 1%)
Aminoglycosides (8, 6.2%)
N UK UK
Du et al. [16] SC retrospective cohort, 1997–1999, China 23/85 Primary bacteraemia (9, 39.1%)
IIA (5, 21.7%)
Pneumonia (4, 17.4%)
UTI (2, 8.7%)
CVC (2, 8.7%)
Other (1, 4.4%)
E. coli (16, 69.5%)
K. pneumoniae (7, 30.5%)
N DTC (23, 100%) Carbapenem (13, 56.5%)
Cephalosporins (7, 30.4%)
Fluoroquinolone (2, 8.7%)
Aminoglycosides (1, 4.4%)
N UK UK
Endimiani et al. [99] SC retrospective cohort, 1997–2004, Italy 9/23 Primary bacteraemia (5, 55.6%)
UTI (4, 44.4%)
P. mirabilis (9, 100%) UK ETC (9, 100%)
DTC (9, 100%)
Cephalosporins (5, 55.6%)
BL/BLI (4, 44.4%)
Cephalosporins (4, 44.4%)
BL/BLI (3, 33.3%)
Carbapenem (2, 22.3%)
Y Y UK
Ferrandez et al. [100] Retrospective cohort, 2000–2006, Spain 53/53 UK E. coli
K. pneumoniae
UK Carbapenem (30, 56.6%)
BL/BLI (5, 9.4%)
Fluoroquinolone (4, 7.5%)
Cephalosporins (2, 3.8%)
Other (12, 22.7%)
Y UK UK
Gudiol et al. [101] SC prospective observational study, 2006–2008, Spain 17/135 Primary bacteraemia (9, 52.9%)
IIA (6, 35.3%)
UTI (1, 5.9%)
Other (1, 5.9%)
E. coli (17, 100%) Y (2, 12%) ETC (17, 100%)
DTC (17, 100%)
BL/BLI (6, 35.3%)
Carbapenem (5, 29.4%)
Cephalosporins (5, 29.4%)
Monobactam (1, 5.9%)
Carbapenem (14, 82.3%)
BL/BLI (2, 11.8%)
Fluoroquinolone (1, 5.9%)
N UK UK
Gutiérez-Gutiérez et al. [51] MC, retrospective cohort study, 2004–2013, International 601/601 UTI (272, 45.2%)
Other (258, 42.9%)
IIA (71, 11.8%)
E. coli (439, 73%)
K. pneumoniae (114, 19%)
Other (48, 8%)
Y (64, 10.7%) ETC (365, 60.7%)
DTC (601, 100%)
Carbapenem (195, 53.5%)
BL/BLI (169, 46.5%)
Carbapenem (509, 84.7%)
BL/BLI (92, 15.3%)
N Y II
Harris et al. [102] SC retrospective cohort study, 2012–2013, China 92/92 UTI (43, 46.7%)
Primary bacteramia (39, 42.2%)
IIA (10, 11.1%)
E. coli (79, 85.9%)
K. pneumoniae (13, 14.1%)
Y (11, 12.1%) DTC (47, 51%) Carbapenem (23, 48.9%)
BL/BLI (24, 51.1%)
N Y II
Kang et al. [17] SC retrospective cohort study, 1998–2002, South Korea 133/133 IIA (82, 61.6%)
Primary bacteraemia (33, 24.8%)
UTI (14, 10.5%)
Pneumonia (4, 3.1%)
E. coli (67, 50.4%)
K. pneumoniae (66, 49.6%)
N ETC (133, 100%)
DTC (133, 100%)
Non cephalosporins (29, 21.8%)
Cephalosporins (104, 78.2%)
Non cephalosporins (101, 75.9%)
Cephalosporins (32, 24.1%)
Y UK UK
Kang et al. [69] MC retrospective cohorts, 2008–2010, South Korea 114/114 UK E. coli (78, 68.4%)
K. pneumonia (36, 31.6%)
UK ETC (114 100%) Carbapenem (78, 68.4%)
Piperacillin/tazobactam (36, 31.6%)
N UK UK
Lee et al. [53] SC retrospective cohort, 2004–2005, Taiwan 27/27 Pneumonia (15, 55.5%)
IIA (5, 18.5%)
UTI (3, 11.1%)
Primary bacteraemia (3, 11.1%)
Other (1, 3.8%)
K. pneumonia (27, 100%) Y (13, 48.1%) DTC (27, 100%) Carbapenem (20, 74%)
Flomoxef (7, 26%)
Y UK UK
Lee and al. [21] SC retrospective cohort, 2001–2008, Taiwan 121/206 CVC (48, 39.6%)
Primary bacteraemia (32, 26.4%)
Pneumonia (12, 9.9%)
SSTI (9, 7.4%)
UTI (9, 7.4%)
IIA (6, 4.9%)
Other (5, 4.3%)
E. cloacae (121, 100%) Y (78, 64.4%) ETC (114, 94.2%)
DTC (114, 94.2%)
Cephalosporins (59, 49.1%)
Carbapenem (26, 21%)
BL/BLI (14, 11.4%)
Other beta-lactam (13, 10.5%)
Fluoroquinolones (3, 2.6%)
Other Antibiotics (6, 5.4%)
Carbapenem (53, 46.5%)
Cephalosporins (38, 33.3%)
Fluoroquinolones (16, 14%)
BL/BLI (3, 2.6%)
Other β-lactam (3, 2.6%)
Other antibiotic therapy (1, 1%)
N UK UK
Lee et al. [54] MC retrospective cohort, 2002–2007, Taiwan 178/178 Pneumonia (43, 24.1%)
UTI (39, 21.9%)
CVC (37, 20.8%)
IIA (28, 15.7%)
Primary bacteraemia (25, 14%)
SSTI (11, 6.3%)
ND UK DTC (178, 100%) Carbapenem (161, 90,4%)
Cefepime (17, 9.6%)
Y Y II
Lee et al. [103] MC retrospective cohort, 2007–2012, Taiwan 389/389 UTI (88, 22.6%)
CVC (86, 22.1%)
Pneumonia (80, 20.5%)
IIA (61, 15.7%)
Primary bacteraemia (62, 16%)
SSTI (12, 3.1%)
E. coli (156, 40.1%)
K. pneumoniae (233, 59.9%)
UK DTC (389, 100%) Carbapenem (257, 66%)
Flomoxef (132, 34%)
Y UK UK
Matsumura et al. [104] MC retrospective cohort, 2005–2014, Japan 113/1440 UTI (57, 50.4%)
IIA (32, 28.3%)
Primary bacteraemia (19, 16.8%)
Other (5, 4.5%)
E. coli (113, 100%) UK ETC (71, 62.8%)
DTC (113, 100%)
Carbapenem (45, 63.7%)
Cefmetazole/flomoxef (26, 36.6%)
Carbapenem (54, 47.8%)
Cefmetazole/flomoxef (59, 52.2%)
Y UK UK
Ofer-Friedman et al. [20] MC retrospective cohort, 2008–2012, International 79/79 Pneumonia (27, 34.2%)
SSTI (22, 27.8%)
IIA (20, 25.3%)
Primary bacteraemia (6, 7.6%)
Undetermined (4, 5.1%)
E. coli (42, 53.1%)
K. pneumoniae (22, 27.8%)
P. mirabilis (15, 19.1%)
> 50% ETC (33, 41.8%)
DTC (79, 100%)
Carbapenem (24, 72.7%)
Piperacillin/tazobactam (9, 27.3%)
Carbapenem (69, 87.3%)
Piperacillin/tazobactam (10, 12.7%)
Y UK UK
Qureshi et al. [105] MC retrospective cohort, 2005–2008, USA 21/UK UK E. cloacae (21, 100%) UK ETC (21, 100%) Cephalosporins (9, 42.8%)
Carbapenem (8, 38%)
BL/BLI (4, 19.2%)
Y UK UK
Paterson et al. [55] Post hoc analysis MC prospective cohort, 1996–1997, International 85/455 UK K. pneumoniae (85, 100%) UK ETC (71, 83.5%) Monotherapy
Carbapenem (27, 38%)
Fluoroquinolones (11, 15.5%)
Cephalosporins (5, 7%)
BL/BLI (4, 5.6%)
Aminoglycosides (2, 2.8%)
Combination therapy (15, 21.1%)
Sequential monotherapy (7, 10%)
N UK UK
Pilmis et al. [106] MC retrospective cohort, 2011, France 13/13 Primary bacteraemia (11, 84.6%)
UTI (2, 15.4%)
E. coli (5, 38.4%)
K. pneumoniae (7, 53.8%)
E. cloacae (1, 7.8%)
UK ETC (13, 100%)
DTC (13, 100%)
Carbapenem (12, 92.3%)
Cefoxitin (1, 7.7%)
Carbapenem (11, 84.6%)
Cefoxitin (2, 15.4%)
N UK UK
Retamar et al. [107] Post hoc analysis MC prospective cohort, 2001–2007, Spain 39/39 UTI (11, 28.2%)
Other source (28, 71.8%)
E. coli (39, 100%) UK ETC (39, 100%) BL/BLI (39, 100%) Y UK UK
Rodriguez-Bano et al. [12] Post hoc analysis MC prospective cohorts, 2001–2007, Spain 192/192 UTI or IIA (121, 63%)
Other sources (71, 37%)
E. coli (192, 100%) Y (24, 12.6%) ETC (103, 53.6%)
DTC (174, 90.6%)
Carbapenem (31, 30%)
BL/BLI (72, 70%)
Carbapenem (120, 68.9%)
BL/BLI (53, 31.1%)
N UK UK
Tamma et al. [19] MC, Prospective cohort, 2008–2015, USA 213/331 CVC (97, 45.5%)
IIA (55, 25.8%)
UTI (44, 20.6%)
Pneumonia (17, 8.1%)
K. pneumoniae (145, 68%)
E. coli (66, 31%)
P. mirabilis (2, 1%)
Y (71, 33.3%) ETC (213, 100%) Carbapenem (110, 51.6%)
BL/BLI (103, 48.4%)
Y UK UK
Tsai et al. [108] MC retrospective cohort, 2005–2012, Taiwan 47/47 UTI (24, 51%)
Pneumonia (9, 19.1%)
SSTI (7, 14.9%)
CVC (5, 10.6%)
IIA (3, 6.4%)
Primary bacteraemia (2, 4.3%)
P. mirabilis (47, 100%) UK DTC (40, 85.1%) Carbapenem (21, 52.5%)
BL/BLI (13, 32.5%)
Other antibiotic therapy (6, 15%)
Y UK UK
Tumbarello et al. [109] SC retrospective cohort, 1999–2004, Italy 186/186 Primary bacteraemia (86, 46.2%)
UTI (53, 28.4%)
IIA (24, 12.9%)
SSTI (20, 10.7%)
Pneumonia (6, 3.2%)
CVC (5, 2.7%)
E. coli (104, 55.9%)
K. pneumoniae (58, 31.2%)
P. mirabilis (24, 12.9%)
UK ETC (186 100%)
DTC (171, 91.9%)
BL/BLI (45, 24.2%)
Fluoroquinolones (45, 24.2%)
Cephalosporins (38, 20.9%)
Carbapenems (29, 15.4%)
Aminoglycosides (29, 15.4%)
Carbapenems (61, 35.7%)
BL/BLI (55, 32.2%)
Aminoglycosides (30, 17.5%)
Fluoroquinolones (25, 14.6%)
Y UK UK
Tuon et al. [110] SC retrospective cohort, 2006–2009, Brazil 28/58 UK E. cloacae (28, 100%) UK DTC (25, 89.2%) Carbapenems (15, 60%)
BL/BLI (4, 16%)
Non-BL/BLI (6, 24%)
N UK UK
Tuon et al. [90] SC retrospective cohort, 2006–2009, Brazil 63/104 UK K. pneumoniae (63, 100%) UK DTC (62, 98.4%) Carbapenems (43, 69.3%)
Non-BL/BLI (17, 27.4%)
BL/BLI (2, 3.1%)
N UK UK
Wang et al. [95] MC, prospective cohort, 2006–2015, USA 68/68 CVC (30, 44.1%)
UTI (21, 30.9%)
IIA (15, 22.1%)
Pneumonia (10, 14.7%)
SSTI (2, 2.9%)
Klebsiella sp. (42, 62%)
E. coli (24, 34%)
P. mirabilis (2, 3%)
Y (20, 29%) ETC (68, 100%) Carbapenem (51, 75%)
Cephalosporins (17, 25%)
N UK UK
  1. BL/BLI beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor, CVC central venous catheter, DTC definitive therapy cohort, ETC empirical therapy cohort, ICU intensive care unit, IIA intra-abdominal infection, MC multicentric, SC single center, SSTI skin and soft tissue infection, UK unknown, UTI urinary tract infection