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Table 1 General characteristics of ECMO in patients without infected/colonised ECMO device, with ECMO device colonisation and ECMO device infection (at the time of ECMO removal)

From: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation devices-related colonisations and infections

Number of ECMOa U-I/C ED ED-C ED-I P valueb
60 33 10  
Age (years) 48 (37–61) 57 (47–63) 43 (41–63) 0.278
Male (n, %) 35 (58.3) 23 (69.7) 8 (80) 0.122
BMI (kg/m2) 24 (22–29) 27 (24–31) 26 (24–27) 0.183
SOFA scorec 10 (7–12) 9 (7–14) 9 (7–10) 0.607
SAPS IIc 44 (39–56) 47 (38–57) 46 (36–53) 0.833
Underlying condition
 Diabetes mellitus 9 (15) 4 (12.1) 0 0.233
 Renal insufficiency 0 2 (6.1) 0 0.300
 Immunocompromisedd 5 (8.3) 6 (18.2) 1 (10) 0.402
 COPD 5 (8.3) 2 (6.1) 0 0.349
 Solid tumour 9 (15) 4 (12.1) 2 (20) 0.906
 Cirrhosis 2 (3.3) 0 0 0.272
 Statin therapy 8 (13.3) 2 (6.1) 0 0.118
ICU stay before ECMO centre admission 2 (0–8) 5 (1–10) 3 (0–4) 0.237
Reason for ECMOe
ARDS 42 (70) 28 (84.8) 10 (100) 0.011*
 CAP 18 13 5 (50)  
 NP 20 13 4 (40)  
 Extrapulmonary 4 2 1 (10)  
Bridge to lung transplantation 2 (6.7) 2 (6.1) 0 0.965
Primary graft dysfunction 14 (23.3) 3 (9.1) 0 0.023*
ECMO characteristics
Mobile ECMO team 27 (45) 21 (63.6) 5 (50) 0.272
Location of ECMO cannulation
 ICU 44 (73.3) 31 (93.9) 10 (100) 0.005#*
 Operating room 16 (26.7) 2 (6.1) 0  
Per-ECMO blood transfusion 9 (4–21) 8 (5–17) 9 (6–16) 0.934
Per-ECMO platelet transfusion 1 (0–4) 1 (0–4) 1 (0–1) 0.651
Per-ECMO plasma transfusion 2 (0–10) 0 (0–4) 0 (0–4) 0.197
Pre-ECMO steroids 14 (23.3) 8 (24.2) 2 (20) 0.903
Per-ECMO steroids 31 (51.7) 15 (45.5) 3 (30) 0.214
Pre-ECMO antibioticsf 48 (80) 29 (87.9) 10 (100) 0.085
Per-ECMO antibioticsg 58 (96.7) 33 (100) 10 (100) 0.272
Antibiotics at the time of ECMO removal 48 (80) 30 (90.9) 5 (50) 0.314
BSI during ECMOh 10 (16.7) 8 (24.2) 2 (20) 0.525
Cannulation     
 Femoro–femoral 19 (31.7) 5 (15.2) 0 0.011*
 Femoro-jugular 41 (68.3) 28 (84.8) 10 (100)  
ECMO circuit change (≥ 1) 24 (40) 12 (36.4) 2 (20) 0.278
ECMO duration (days) 7.5 (5–16) 12 (9–20) 13 (11–17) 0.021#
  1. Data are provided as no. (%) of ECMO or median value (interquartile range)
  2. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BMI body mass index, CAP community-acquired pneumonia, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ICU intensive care unit, NP nosocomial pneumonia, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SOFA sepsis-related organ failure assessment, U-I/C ED uninfected/uncolonised ECMO device, ED-C ECMO device colonisation, ED-I ECMO device infection
  3. * p < 0.05, comparison between U-I/C ED and ED-I
  4. # p < 0.05, comparison between U-I/C ED and ED-C
  5. aAmong the 99 patients, 4 underwent 2 ECMO during their ICU stay corresponding to 103 VV-ECMO
  6. b p value corresponds to the comparison between the three categories (U-I/C ED, ED-C, ED-I)
  7. cCalculated at ICU admission
  8. dIncludes patients with human immunodeficiency virus, solid organ transplantation or haematological malignancy and those receiving chemotherapy, immunosuppressive agents or long-term corticosteroid therapy
  9. eFor 2 patients, ECMO reason was thoracic surgery
  10. fPre-ECMO antibiotics correspond to antibiotics received for at least 24 h before ECMO implantation
  11. gPer-ECMO antibiotics correspond to antibiotics received immediately after ECMO implantation
  12. hBloodstream infection (BSI) under ECMO includes primary and secondary bloodstream infections