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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of sepsis patients admitted to the ICU stratified according to prior use of statins

From: The host response in critically ill sepsis patients on statin therapy: a prospective observational study

Characteristics Unmatched cohort Propensity-matched cohort
Statins
N = 351
No statins
N = 709
p Statins
N = 194
No statins
N = 194
p
Demographics
Age, years, mean [SD] 67.0 [9.9] 58.7 [15.6] < .0001 66.7 [10.5] 65.8 [13.2] .43
Gender, male (%) 238 (67.8) 402 (56.7) .002 123 (63.4) 121 (62.4) .93
Race, white (%) 315 (89.7) 619 (87.3) .19 175 (90.2) 175 (90.2) 1
BMI, kg/m2, mean [SD] 26.8 [6.2] 25.6 [6.1] .002 26.6 [6.09] 27.0 [6.95] .49
Comorbidities
Cerebrovascular disease (%) 58 (16.5) 43 (6.1) < .001 32 (16.5) 24 (12.4) .31
Chronic cardiovascular insufficiency (%) 22 (6.3) 17 (2.4) .002 11 (5.7) 10 (5.2) 1
Chronic renal insufficiency (%) 88 (25.1) 67 (9.4) < .001 46 (23.7) 38 (19.6) .38
Congestive heart failure (%) 29 (8.3) 23 (3.2) .002 10 (5.2) 10 (5.2) 1
COPD (%) 70 (19.9) 89 (12.6) .005 32 (16.5) 36 (18.6) .70
Diabetes mellitus (%) 133 (37.9) 89 (12.6) < .001 60 (30.9) 48 (24.7) .19
Hematologic malignancy (%) 9 (2.6) 70 (9.9) .001 7 (3.6) 6 (3.1) 1
Hypertension (%) 174 (49.6) 159 (22.4) < .001 81 (41.8) 76 (39.2) .68
Immune deficiency (%) 72 (20.5) 158 (22.3) .52 38 (19.6) 43 (22.2) .63
Metastatic malignancy (%) 6 (1.7) 39 (5.5) .004 3 (1.5) 1 (0.5) .62
Myocardial infarction (history of) (%) 70 (19.9) 30 (4.2) < .001 29 (14.9) 22 (11.3) .38
Non-metastatic malignancy (%) 62 (17.7) 89 (12.6) .03 43 (22.2) 33 (17) .24
Peripheral vascular disease (%) 82 (23.4) 50 (7.1) < .001 46 (23.7) 26 (13.4) .01
Alcohol or drug abuse (%) 17 (4.8) 60 (8.5) .04 11 (5.7) 17 (8.8) .33
Chronic medication
ACE inhibitors and ARBs (%) 192 (54.7) 134 (18.9) < .001 90 (46.4) 76 (39.2) .19
Anticoagulants (%) 72 (20.5) 97 (13.7) .009 45 (23.2) 44 (22.7) 1
Antiplatelet drugs (%) 203 (57.8) 91 (12.8) < .001 91 (46.9) 69 (35.6) .03
Beta-blockers (%) 215 (61.3) 135 (19) < .001 100 (51.5) 86 (44.3) .18
Calcium channel blockers (%) 108 (30.8) 79 (11.1) < .001 54 (27.8) 46 (23.7) .42
Corticosteroids (%) 54 (15.4) 109 (15.4) 1 28 (14.4) 37 (19.1) .27
Insulin (%) 77 (21.9) 51 (7.2) < .001 43 (22.2) 28 (14.4) .05
Oral antidiabetic drugs (%) 91 (25.9) 47 (6.6) < .001 38 (19.6) 27 (13.9) .18
Other antiarrhythmic drugs (%) 27 (7.7) 28 (3.9) .008 17 (8.8) 17 (8.8) 1
Statins
 Simvastatin (%) 189 (53.8)   109 (56.2)  
 Atorvastatin (%) 75 (21.4)   37 (19.1)  
 Pravastatin (%) 49 (14)   27 (13.9)  
 Rosuvastatin (%) 28 (8)   15 (7.7)  
 Fluvastatin (%) 8 (2.3)   4 (2.1)  
 Unknown statin (%) 2 (0.6)   2 (1)  
Site of infection
Pulmonary (%) 137 (39) 326 (46) .04 75 (38.7) 79 (40.7) .77
Abdominal (%) 63 (17.9) 140 (19.7) .50 39 (20.1) 31 (16) .37
Urinary tract (%) 45 (12.8) 64 (9) .07 25 (12.9) 24 (12.4) 1
Other (%)a 64 (18.2) 101 (14.2) .11 33 (17) 38 (19.6) .60
Co-infection (%) 42 (12) 78 (11) .69 22 (11.3) 22 (11.3) 1
Admission type, medical (%) 253 (72.1) 531 (74.9) .34 135 (69.6) 155 (79.9) .02
Causative pathogens b
Gram-positive (%) 184 (52.4) 327 (46) .34 88 (45.4) 85 (43.8) .79
Gram-negative (%) 220 (62.7) 395 (55.7) .31 119 (61.3) 111 (57.2) .49
Yeast/fungi (%) 38 (10.8) 79 (11.1) .68 20 (10.3) 25 (12.9) .54
Other (%) 39 (11.1) 94 (13.3) .21 25 (12.9) 24 (12.4) .89
Unknown (%) 51 (14.5) 124 (17.5) .14 26 (13.4) 34 (17.5) .35
Severity of disease in first 24 h
APACHE IV Score, median [IQR] 83 [67–103] 78 [61–101] .04 85 [66–103] 83 [66–106] .95
Acute physiology score, median [IQR] 68 [51–86] 65 [51–85] .45 71 [52–87] 67 [53–92] ,91
SOFA score, median [IQR]c 8 [6–10] 7 [5–9] .007 8 [6–10] 7 [5–9.75] .38
Organ failure (%) 295 (84) 600 (84.6) .09 169 (87.1) 174 (89.7) .79
Shock (%) 119 (33.9) 240 (33.9) 1 73 (37.6) 77 (39.7) .75
Acute lung injury (%) 89 (25.4) 202 (28.5) .30 53 (27.3) 50 (25.8) .82
Acute kidney injury (%) 157 (44.7) 271 (38.2) .04 81 (41.8) 90 (46.4) .41
Mechanical ventilation (%) 272 (77.5) 549 (77.4) 1 153 (78.9) 155 (79.9) .90
Renal replacement therapy (%) 48 (13.7) 61 (8.6) .02 32 (16.5) 19 (9.8) .05
Lactate max. (mmol/l), median [IQR]d 2.6 [1.7–4.9] 2.6 [1.6–4.77] .57 2.5 [1.6–4.6] 2.9 [1.8–4.6] .41
  1. ACE angiotensin-converting-enzyme, APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IQR interquartile range, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, SD standard deviation, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment
  2. aSite of infection: “other” includes cardiovascular infection, mediastinitis and skin infection
  3. bPercentages represent the proportion of cases caused by the particular pathogen. In some cases multiple causative pathogens were isolated
  4. cCentral nervous system not included in score, due to large number of sedated patients
  5. dLactate levels were absent in 220 patients