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Table 2 Incidence and categorization of AKI and its association with mortality after major abdominal surgery

From: Acute kidney injury in major abdominal surgery: incidence, risk factors, pathogenesis and outcomes

Study Design Setting Criteria AKI definition N Incidence Mortality AUROC
Armstrong et al. [59] Retrospective, single center HBP SCr AKIN 1535 5.10%
1–4.0%
2–0.8%
3–0.3%
1.7% AKI versus 3.4% non-AKI, P = 0.21 NA
Bell et al. [58] Interrupted time series analysis MA/GI SCr KDIGO 3271 9.80% NA NA
Bihorac et al. [20] Retrospective, single center MA/GI SCr RIFLE 2337 39.3% NA NA
Biteker et al. [12] Prospective, single center MA/GI SCr RIFLE 510 6.7% 6.1% AKI versus 0.9% non-AKI, P = 0.003 NA
Brunelli et al. (2012) Retrospective, single center MA/GI SCr AKIN/RIFLE 1912 26.80% NA NA
Causey et al. [32] Retrospective, single center Colorectal SCr RIFLE 339 11.8% 6.30% AKI versus 0.9%, P = 0.065 NA
Chao et al. (2013) Prospective, multicenter MA/GI SCr AKIN 4240 23.1%
1–13.7%
2–1.8%
3–7.6%
28.40%
1–16%
2–29.7%
3–48.3% (HR 3.19, 95% CI 2.16–4.71; P < 0.001)
0.728
Cho et al. [4] Prospective, single center HBP SCr, UO AKIN 131 7.6%
1–3.8% 2–1.5%
3–2.3%
7.10% AKI versus 2.5% non-AKI, P > 0.05 NA
Coca et al. [98] Retrospective, multicenter Non cardiac surgery SCr AKIN 11.460 18.9%
1–5.2%
2–2.5%
3–1.2%
NA NA
Correa-Gallego et al. [60] Retrospective, single center HBP SCr RIFLE 2166 15.5%
R 12.8%
I 2.3%
F 0.4%
1% AKI versus 2% non-AKI, P = 0.5 NA
Grams et al. [89] Retrospective, single center MA/GI SCr KDIGO 44.597 13.2%
1–9.4%
2–2.2%
3–1.5%
IRR 6.40 (95% CI, 5.75, 7.12) P < 0.05) NA
Kambakamba et al. [67] Retrospective, single center HBP SCr AKIN 829 8.2% 21% AKI versus 0.3% non-AKI, P  < 0.001 0.765
Kim et al. [68] Retrospective, single center UGI SCr KDIGO 4718 14.4%
1–12.5%
2–1.3%
3–0.6%
3.8% AKI versus 0.3% non-AKI, P < 0.001 (OR, 8.75; 95% CI, 3.98–19.27; P < 0.001) NA
Lee et al. [62] Retrospective, single center UGI SCr AKIN 595 35.3%
1–30.3%
2–2.7%
3–4.2%
4.80% AKI versus 2.1% non-AKI, P = 0.115 NA
Slankamenac et al. [64] Retrospective, single center HBP SCr, UO RIFLE 569 15.1% 22.5% AKI versus 0.8% non-AKI, P < 0.001 0.75
Sun et al. [69] Retrospective, single center GYN SCr AKIN 863 3.1% NA NA
Sun et al. [69] Retrospective, single center MA/GI SCr AKIN 1351 9.6% NA NA
Teixeira et al. [8] Retrospective, single center MA/GI SCr, UO KDIGO 450 22.4%
1–63.4%
2–19.8%
3–16.8%
20.8% AKI versus 2.3% non-AKI, P < 0.001; OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.2–11.7, P = 0.024 NA
Tomozawa et al. [65] Retrospective, single center HBP SCr AKIN 642 12.1%
1–9.8%
2–2.0%
3–0.3%
14.1% AKI versus 2.3% non-AKI, P < 0.0001 NA
Vaught et al. [9] Retrospective, single center GYN SCr RIFLE 2341 12.6%
R–7.9%
I–2.7%
F–1.9%
10% AKI versus 0.5% non-AKI, P < 0.0083 0.88
  1. GI gastrointestinal, HPB hepato-biliary, RIFLE risk, injury failure, loss, end stage, AKIN Acute Kidney Injury Network, KDIGO Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes, MA major abdominal, GYN gynecological, SCr serum creatinine, UO urinary output, IRR incidence rate ratio, NA not available