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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Predictors of response to fixed-dose vasopressin in adult patients with septic shock

Characteristic Total (N = 938) Non-responders (N = 512) Responders (N = 426) P value
Characteristics at ICU admission
Age, years 62 ± 14 61 ± 15 62 ± 14 0.17
Male, n (%) 493 (52.6) 272 (53.1) 221 (51.9) 0.70
Race, n (%)     0.10
 Caucasian 652 (69.5) 357 (69.7) 295 (69.2)  
 African American 241 (25.7) 124 (24.2) 117 (27.5)  
 Other 45 (4.8) 31 (6.1) 14 (3.3)  
ICU type, n (%)     0.06
 Medical 712 (75.9) 401 (78.3) 311 (73.0)  
 Neurological 65 (6.9) 27 (5.3) 38 (8.9)  
 Surgical 161 (17.2) 84 (16.4) 77 (18.1)  
Weight, kg 90.5 ± 34.0 92.0 ± 37.1 88.6 ± 29.9 0.13
BMI, kg/m2 31.5 ± 11.7 31.9 ± 12.6 31.0 ± 10.4 0.22
ESRD, n (%) 119 (12.7) 58 (11.3) 61 (14.3) 0.17
APACHE III 106 ± 34 107 ± 36 104 ± 30 0.09
APS 90 ± 32 92 ± 35 88 ± 29 0.14
Comorbid conditions, n (%)     
 Diabetes mellitus 286 (30.5) 152 (29.7) 134 (31.5) 0.56
 Hepatic failure 160 (17.1) 99 (19.3) 61 (14.3) 0.04
 Immune suppression 196 (20.9) 109 (21.3) 87 (20.4) 0.75
 Leukemia/myeloma 65 (6.9) 38 (7.4) 27 (6.3) 0.52
 Moderate COPD 13 (1.4) 9 (1.8) 4 (0.9) 0.45
 Severe COPD 85 (9.1) 42 (8.2) 43 (10.1) 0.45
No chronic health issues, n (%) 232 (24.7) 118 (23.0) 114 (26.8) 0.19
Characteristics at time of AVP initiation
Appropriate antibiotics, n (%)a 887 (94.6) 487 (95.1) 400 (93.9) 0.41
Fluids prior to AVP, mL/kg 30.7 ± 34.4 30.6 ± 35.1 30.8 ± 33.6 0.95
MAP, mmHg 67 ± 12 65 ± 12 69 ± 12 < 0.001
Lactate, mmol/L 4.8 ± 4.4 5.4 ± 4.8 4.0 ± 3.6 < 0.001
SOFA score 13 ± 4 12 ± 3 13 ± 4 0.49
Total CA dose
 mcg/min 28.2 ± 19.9 27.8 ± 21.9 28.6 ± 17.3 0.54
 mcg/kg/min 0.34 ± 0.26 0.33 ± 0.27 0.35 ± 0.25 0.18
Catecholamine agent, n (%)
 Norepinephrine 937 (99.9) 511 (99.8) 426 (100.0) 0.99
 Phenylephrine 66 (7.0) 31 (6.1) 35 (8.2) 0.20
 Epinephrine 25 (2.7) 11 (2.1) 14 (3.3) 0.28
 Dopamine 4 (0.4) 2 (0.4) 2 (0.5) 0.99
AVP dose
 Units/min 0.0314 ± 0.0063 0.0317 ± 0.0064 0.0312 ± 0.0062 0.24
 Units/kg/h 0.0226 ± 0.0084 0.0224 ± 0.0084 0.0227 ± 0.0083 0.66
Corticosteroids, n (%) 571 (60.9) 320 (62.5) 251 (58.9) 0.26
AKI, n (%)     0.21
 Risk 79 (8.4) 50 (9.8) 29 (6.8)  
 Injury 32 (3.4) 21 (4.1) 11 (2.6)  
 Failure 142 (15.1) 75 (14.6) 67 (15.7)  
 Loss 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
CRRT, n (%) 159 (17.0) 81 (15.8) 78 (18.3) 0.31
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, AVP arginine vasopressin, APS acute physiology score, BMI body mass index, CA catecholamine, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, ESRD end-stage renal dysfunction, MAP mean arterial pressure, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment
  2. aAntibiotics were considered to be appropriate if patients received antibiotics described in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services sepsis measure or received an appropriately de-escalated antibiotic regimen for an isolated pathogen on the day of AVP initiation
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