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Table 2 Acid–base parameters of critically ill patients with and without liver disease

From: Acid–base status and its clinical implications in critically ill patients with cirrhosis, acute-on-chronic liver failure and without liver disease

Parameter Propensity score-matched controls (n = 178) Cirrhosis (n = 178) Overall p value (Kruskal–Wallis) Significant differences pairwise (Dunn’s post hoc)
No ACLF (n = 21) ACLF (n = 157)
pH 7.36 (7.27 to 7.43) 7.44 (7.37 to 7.47) 7.35 (7.23 to 7.45) < 0.01 No ACLF versus ACLF p < 0.01, matched controls versus no ACLF p < 0.01
PaCO2, mmHg 40.0 (33.1 to 49.0) 38.1 (30.0 to 44.2) 35.0 (28.5 to 44.6) < 0.01 Matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
HCO3 22.0 (19.0 to 25.3) 22.7 (20.3 to 24.0) 18.9 (14.7 to 24.0) < 0.01 No ACLF versus ACLF p < 0.01, matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
BE − 3.5 (− 7.4 to 0.8) − 1.2 (− 3.9 to 1.7) − 7.0 (− 12.6 to − 0.5) < 0.01 No ACLF versus ACLF p < 0.01, matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
BENa − 0.3 (− 1.5 to 0.9) − 0.9 (− 1.8 to 0.3) − 1.2 (− 3.0 to 0.3) < 0.01 Matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
BECl − 5.7 (− 8.3 to − 2.7) − 5.2 (− 8.5 to − 1.4) − 4.5 (− 7.3 to 0.7) 0.062  
BEAlb 4.2 (2.9 to 5.3) 5.2 (3.9 to 6.3) 4.9 (3.8 to 6.2) < 0.01 Matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
BElactate − 0.6 (− 1.9 to − 0.2) − 0.9 (− 1.9 to − 0.4) − 2.7 (− 6.0 to − 0.9) < 0.01 No ACLF versus ACLF p < 0.01, matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
BEUMA − 0.3 (− 3.7 to 2.7) 1.5 (− 0.7 to 4.3) − 1.8 (− 6.1 to 1.9) < 0.01 No ACLF versus ACLF p < 0.01, matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
SIDe, mEq/l 33 (30 to 37) 32 (30 to 37) 29 (25 to 34) < 0.01 No ACLF versus ACLF p < 0.05, matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
SIDa, mEq/l 41 (37 to 43) 40 (36 to 44) 39 (35 to 42) < 0.01 Matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
SIG, mEq/l 7 (4 to 10) 7 (5 to 8) 8 (6 to 11) < 0.01 No ACLF versus ACLF p < 0.05, matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
Na 138 (134 to 142) 136 (133 to 140) 135 (129 to 140) < 0.01 Matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
Cl 106 (102 to 109) 105 (99 to 108) 102 (96 to 108) < 0.01 Matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
ClNa corrected 107 (104 to 109) 106 (102 to 110) 106 (100 to 108) 0.075  
Ca total 2.1 (2.0 to 2.2) 2.0 (1.9 to 2.1) 2.0 (1.9 to 2.2) 0.191  
Ca ionized 1.1 (1.1 to 1.2) 1.2 (1.1 to 1.2) 1.1 (1.0 to 1.2) < 0.01 No ACLF versus ACLF p < 0.05, matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
Mg 0.9 (0.7 to 1.0) 0.7 (0.7 to 0.9) 0.9 (0.7 to 1.0) < 0.05 No ACLF versus ACLF p < 0.05
Albumin, g/l 28.5 (24.3 to 33.8) 25.8 (21.8 to 30.5) 25.6 (21.1 to 30.3) < 0.01 Matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
Lactate 1.4 (1.0 to 2.7) 1.7 (1.2 to 2.7) 3.5 (1.7 to 6.8) < 0.01 No ACLF versus ACLF p < 0.01, matched controls versus ACLF p < 0.01
  1. ACLF acute-on-chronic liver failure, PaCO 2 partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, HCO 3 bicarbonate, BE base excess, SBE standard base excess, BE Na BE caused by free water effect, BE Cl BE caused by changes in chloride, BE Alb BE caused by albumin effect, BE lactate BE attributable to lactate elevation, BE UMA BE attributable to unmeasured anions, SIDe effective strong ion difference, SIDa apparent strong ion difference, SIG strong ion gap, Na sodium, Cl chloride, Ca calcium, all values are given in mmol/l with interquartile range (IQR), unless otherwise indicated