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Table 3 Acid–base disorders stratified according to the presence of cirrhosis and ACLF

From: Acid–base status and its clinical implications in critically ill patients with cirrhosis, acute-on-chronic liver failure and without liver disease

Metabolic disturbances on admission Propensity score-matched controls (n = 178) Cirrhosis (n = 178) p value for overall cirrhosis versus matched controls p value for the effect of ACLF category*
Overall cirrhosis (n = 178) ACLF category
No ACLF (n = 21) ACLF grade 1 and 2 (n = 72) ACLF grade III (n = 85)
Acidemia 87 (49%) 86 (48%) 4 (19%) 29 (40%) 53 (62%) 1.00 < 0.01
Alkalemia 35 (20%) 52 (29%) 11 (52%) 21 (29%) 20 (24%) < 0.05 < 0.05
Respiratory acidosis 64 (36%) 41 (23%) 3 (14%) 13 (18%) 25 (29%) < 0.05 0.052
Respiratory alkalosis 55 (31%) 88 (49%) 10 (48%) 40 (56%) 38 (45%) < 0.01 0.338
Metabolic acidosis 89 (50%) 112 (63%) 7 (33%) 45 (63%) 60 (71%) < 0.05 < 0.01
Metabolic alkalosis 38 (21%) 33 (19%) 4 (19%) 16 (22%) 13 (15%) 0.596 0.365
Dilutional acidosis 1 (0.6%) 11 (6%) 0 4 (6%) 7 (8%) < 0.01 0.205
Concentrational alkalosis 2 (1.1%) 6 (3%) 0 6 (8%) 0 0.289 0.136
Hyperchloremic acidosis 98 (55%) 78 (44%) 11 (52%) 32 (44%) 35 (41%) < 0.05 0.399
Hypochloremic alkalosis 7 (4%) 15 (8%) 0 8 (11%) 7 (8%) 0.134 0.702
Hypoalbuminemic alkalosis 58 (33%) 86 (48%) 11 (52%) 36 (50%) 39 (46%) < 0.01 0.516
Acidosis owing to unmeasured anions 32 (18%) 48 (27%) 1 (5%) 16 (22%) 31 (37%) 0.061 < 0.01
Lactic acidosis 65 (37%) 118 (66%) 7 (33%) 44 (61%) 67 (79%) < 0.01 < 0.01
  1. All values are given in number (n) and percent (%)
  2. ACLF acute-on-chronic liver failure
  3. *p value calculated by univariate ordinal logistic regression