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Table 1 Patients preoperative and peroperative characteristics

From: Biological scoring system for early prediction of acute bowel ischemia after cardiac surgery: the PALM score

Variables Ischemic group (n = 48) Non-ischemic (n = 96) p value
Preoperative characteristics
Age, years, mean ± SD 73.6 ± 9.2 73.2 ± 9.2 0.80
Male, n (%) 27 (56.3) 54 (56.3) 0.99
Body mass index, kg/m2, mean ± SD 27.7 ± 4.9 27.2 ± 4.4 0.51
Hypertension, n (%) 40 (83.3) 66 (62.3) 0.06
Coronaropathy, n (%) 26 (54.2) 57 (59.4) 0.55
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 26 (54.2) 46 (47.9) 0.48
Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 15 (31.3) 24 (25.0) 0.35
Smoking, n (%) 17 (54.8) 30 (31.3) 0.66
Peripheral arterial disease, n (%) 6 (12.5) 10 (10.4) 0.71
Diabetes, n (%) 7 (14.6) 28 (29.4) 0.05
ASA score 3–4, n (%) 48 (100) 94 (97.9) 0.56
Emergency surgery, n (%) 14 (29.2) 13 (13.5) 0.02
Peroperative characteristics
Extracorporeal circulation (ECC), n (%) 39 (81.3) 82 (85.4) 0.52
ECC duration, min, mean ± SD 112.4 ± 63.0 100.1 ± 62.2 0.27
Aortic clamping duration, min ± SD 59.8 ± 47.0 66.4 ± 43.0 0.40
Spontaneous fibrillation, n (%) 33 (68.8) 65 (67.7) 0.90
Electrical cardioversion, n (%) 15 (31.2) 31 (32.3) 0.90
Loading volume, ml, mean ± SD 1915.9 ± 696.5 2573.9 ± 823.0 0.005
Use of macromolecules, n (%) 27 (56.3) 54 (56.3) 0.99
Volume of macromolecules ≥ 500 mL, n (%) 16 (33.3) 15 (15.6) 0.015
Use of ephedrin, n (%) 11 (22.9) 20 (20.8) 0.08
Use of neosynephrin, n (%) 11 (22.9) 14 (14.6) 0.21
Use of catecholamines, n (%) 27 (56.3) 21 (21.4) 0.005
Use of a cell saver, n (%) 46 (95.8) 93 (96.9) 0.75
Transfusion, n (%) 21 (43.8) 25 (26.0) 0.03