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Table 2 ECMO details and outcomes

From: Vascular complications in adult postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock patients receiving venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Variable With vascular complications (n = 72) n (%) Without vascular complications (n = 360) n (%) P value
ECMO implantation
Failure to wean off CPB 40 (55.6%) 198 (55.0%) 0.932
LCOS in ICU 32 (44.4%) 162 (45.0%) 0.932
Inotrope scores 52.5 ± 11.2 38.3 ± 12.9 0.008
Lactate at ECMO initiation (mmol/L) 11.0 (7.8, 14.3) 9.5 (6.9, 12.8) 0.035
Peak lactate during ECMO (mmol/L) 16.2 (13.6, 20.8) 15.2 (11.5, 18.5) 0.004
SOFA score at ECMO initiation 13.0 (12.0, 13.0) 12.0 (11.0, 13.0) < 0.001
SOFA score at 24 h post-ECMO 11.0 (10.0, 11.0) 9.0 (7.0, 11.0) < 0.001
Arterial cannula size, Fr 16.5 ± 0.6 16.1 ± 0.7 0.467
Ongoing CPR 13 (18.1%) 56 (15.6%) 0.597
IABP support 45 (62.5%) 200 (55.6%) 0.280
ECMO outcomes
Weaning from ECMO 24 (33.3%) 228 (63.3%) < 0.001
Survival to discharge 12 (16.7%) 141 (39.2%) < 0.001
Duration of ECMO (days) 2.9 (1.6, 5.4) 3.8 (2.2, 5.5) 0.204
Complications
Renal failure required CRRT 38 (52.1%) 171 (47.6%) 0.490
Neurologic complications 11 (15.3%) 56 (15.6%) 0.953
DIC 3 (4.2%) 6 (1.7%) 0.177
Severe bleeding 16 (22.2%) 47 (13.1%) 0.044
Tracheostomy 27 (37.5%) 140 (39.0%) 0.812
Repeat thoracotomy 37 (51.4%) 132 (36.7%) 0.019
Femoral site infection 6 (8.3%) 25 (7.0%) 0.681
Sepsis 13 (18.1%) 84 (23.3%) 0.335
Medical resources
PRBC transfusion (units) 28.0 (19.3, 35.8) 22.0 (14.0, 32.0) 0.002
FFP 2400 (1600, 3600) 2000 (1400, 3000) 0.076
Platelets 3.0 (1.0, 5.0) 3.0 (1.0, 5.0) 0.578
Duration of MV 94.5 (38.8, 191.3) 120.0 (51.0, 210.0) 0.018
ICU stay (days) 107.0 (44.8, 237.4) 168.0 (95.0, 255.8) 0.007
Post-ECMO hospital stay (days) 0 (0, 7.8) 7 (0, 15.8) < 0.001
Hospital stay (days) 17.0 (11.0, 25.8) 23.0 (16.0, 34.8) 0.001
  1. Data presented as n (%) categorical variables and median (interquartile range) for non-parametric variable. Inotrope scores = dosage of dopamine (in μg/kg/min) + dosages of dobutamine (in μg/kg/min) + [dosages of epinephrine (in μg/kg/min + norepinephrine (in μg/kg/min)] × 100 + dosages of pituitrin (in u/min) × 100 + dosages of milrinone (in μg/kg/min) × 15
  2. CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, FFP fresh frozen plasma, ICU intensive care unit, LCOS low cardiac output syndrome, MV mechanical ventilation, PRBC packed red blood cells, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment
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