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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients according to lactate level (≤ 2 or > 2 mmol/L)

From: Hyperoxia toxicity in septic shock patients according to the Sepsis-3 criteria: a post hoc analysis of the HYPER2S trial

  Lactate ≤ 2 mmol/L (n = 167) Lactate > 2 mmol/L (n = 230)
Normoxia (n = 75) Hyperoxia (n = 92) p Normoxia (n = 122) Hyperoxia (n = 108) p
Age (years)
  Mean (SD) 66 (13) 66 (12) 0.877 67 (14) 69 (13) 0.360
  Median (IQR) 68 (56.5–76) 67 (59.5–74.25) 0.842 68.5 (60.25–78.75) 71 (61–79.25) 0.501
Men, n (%) 48 (64.0%) 72 (78.3%) 0.041 80 (65.6%) 57 (52.8%) 0.048
Weight (kg)
  Mean (SD) 69.6 (16.4) 72 (17.1) 0.351 75.4 (15.5) 72.1 (16.5) 0.120
  Median (IQR) 66 (59.5–74.5) 70.5 (60–80.8) 0.208 76 (65–81.8) 70 (60–80) 0.047
SAPS III
  Mean (SD) 69.6 (10) 68.9 (9.4) 0.666 74.4 (11.5) 74 (12) 0.797
  Median (IQR) 68 (63.8–75.2) 70 (62.5–75) 0.921 73 (66.2–80.8) 71 (67–82) 0.614
SOFA
  Mean (SD) 9.5 (2.5) 9.6 (2.4) 0.851 10.6 (2.9) 10.6 (2.8) 0.987
  Median (IQR) 9 (8–11) 9 (8–11) 0.782 11 (8–12) 11 (8–12) 0.850
Mc Cabe Score
  1 45 (60.0%) 62 (67.4%) 0.308 79 (64.8%) 70 (64.8%) 0.927
  2 24 (32.0%) 20 (21.7%) 30 (24.6%) 28 (25.9%)
  3 6 (8.0%) 10 (10.9%) 13 (10.7%) 10 (9.3%)
Recent surgical history, n (%)
  No 57 (76.0%) 75 (81.5%) 0.422 82 (67.2%) 67 (62.0%) 0.661
  Elective 7 (9.3%) 4 (4.3%) 5(4.1%) 4 (3.7%)
  Emergency 11 (14.7%) 13 (14.1%) 35 (28.7%) 37 (34.3%)
Preexisting disorders, n (%)
  Immunosuppression 14 (18.7%) 14 (15.2%) 0.553 28 (23.0%) 20 (18.5%) 0.409
  Cancer 26 (34.7%) 24 (26.1%) 0.228 36 (29.8%) 35 (32.4%) 0.664
  Heart failure 5 (9.3%) 7 (7.6%) 0.815 8 (6.6%) 4 (3.7%) 0.491
  Chronic kidney failure 6 (8.0%) 7 (7.6%) 0.925 15 (12.4%) 12 (11.1%) 0.763
  COPD 19 (25.3%) 17 (18.5%) 0.284 11 (9.1%) 16 (14.8%) 0.180
  Coronary artery disease 10 (13.3%) 15 (16.3%) 0.592 12 (10.0%) 9 (8.3%) 0.678
  Cirrhosis 0 (0%) 2 (2.2%) 0.502F 11 (9.1%) 5 (4.6%) 0.186
Source of infection, n (%)
  Lung 44 (58.7%) 57 (62.0%) 0.866 39 (26.2%) 37 (34.3%) 0.739
  Abdomen 10 (13.3%) 15 (16.3%) 39 (32.0%) 35 (32.4%)
  Urinary tract 6 (8.0%) 6 (6.5%) 8 (6.6%) 10 (9.3%)
  Other community acquired infection 15 (20.0%) 14 (15.2%) 36 (29.5%) 26 (24.1%)
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg)
  Mean (SD) 75 (12) 75 (12) 0.949 72 (16) 72 (16) 0.872
  Median (IQR) 74 (67–80) 73.5 (67–81) 0.810 71 (64–83) 70 (61.5–81) 0.761
Heart rate (beats per min)
  Mean (SD) 96 (24) 99 (25) 0.411 108 (25) 107 (22) 0.669
  Median (IQR) 94 (82–109) 96 (82–110.5) 0.578 110 (91–124) 105 (93–123) 0.688
Arterial pH
  Mean (SD) 7.33 (0.11) 7.32 (0.09) 0.766 7.25 (0.12) 7.26 (0.11) 0.222
  Median (IQR) 7.33 (7.26–7.40) 7.32 (7.26–7.37) 0.716 7.27 (7.18–7.32) 7.28 (7.20–7.33) 0.177
Lactate (mmol/L)
  Mean (SD) 1.4 (0.4) 1.4 (0.4) 0.774 5.2 (3.6) 4.8 (3.8) 0.467
  Median (IQR) 1.4 (1.0–1.7) 1.5 (1.0–1.7) 0.736 3.7 (2.8–6.5) 3.4 (2.7–5.2) 0.231
Crystalloid fluid treatment before inclusion (mL)
  Mean (SD) 2883 (1397) 2631 (1298) 0.234 2876 (1392) 3003 (1522) 0.511
  Median (IQR) 2500 (2000–3500) 2250 (2000–3000) 0.147 2500 (2000–3500) 2500 (2000–3625) 0.684
Serum sodium (mmol/L)
  Mean (SD) 138 (5) 138 (3) 0.652 139 (6) 139 (4) 0.611
  Median (IQR) 138 (134–142) 139 (136–141) 0.431 139 (136–142) 139 (136–142) 0.545
Serum chloride (mmol/L)
  Mean (SD) 107 (6) 106 (6) 0.471 106 (7) 106 (6) 0.645
  Median (IQR) 106 (103–111) 105.5 (103–109) 0.448 105 (102–109) 105 (102–111) 0.355
Dose of norepinephrine (µg/kg/min)
  Mean (SD) 0.44 (0.38) 0.56 (0.65) 0.137 0.79 (0.82) 0.75 (0.74) 0.701
  Median (IQR) 0.31 (0.2–0.5) 0.35 (0.2–0.65) 0.367 0.55 (0.27–1.04) 0.50 (0.30–0.88) 0.930
PaO2/FiO2 ratio (mmHg)
  Mean (SD) 227 (102) 191 (73) 0.012 231 (108) 232 (110) 0.934
  Median (IQR) 207 (143–265) 175 (131–235) 0.023 198 (143–301) 202 (149–293) 0.876
Patients with PaO2 > 120 mmHg, n (%) 37 (49.3%) 37 (40.2%) 0.238 72 (59.0%) 61 (56.5%) 0.698
ARDS with PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 200 mmHg, n (%) 36 (48.0%) 56 (64.1%) 0.096 61 (50.0%) 52 (48.1%) 0.779
  1. The Chi-square or Fisher test was used for qualitative data. The quantitative data were compared by t test for the mean comparison, Mann–Whitney test for median comparisons. p values are reported without correction of the α risk despite multiple comparisons, p values are presented for the comparison between “normoxia” and “hyperoxia” treatment in the lactate ≤ 2 mmol/L and lactate > 2 mmol/L groups, respectively. F Fisher, IQR interquartile range, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SAPS simplified acute physiological score, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment