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Table 2 Performance of SAP-guided resuscitation with fluid and with combination of fluid and norepinephrine

From: Performance of closed-loop resuscitation of haemorrhagic shock with fluid alone or in combination with norepinephrine: an experimental study

Resuscitation Fluid Fluid and norepinephrine
Groups M-F CL-PI CL-FL p value* M-FNE CL-FNE p value**
Rising time (s) 226 (173–412) 252 (224–504) 529 (192–1141) 0.466 434 (254–1081) 160 (106–187) < 0.001
Time in target area (%) 76.8 (67.9–78.2) 80.9 (59.1–85.3) 64.6 (45.7–72.9) 0.160 60.1 (46.1–72.4) 74.4 (58.4–84.5) 0.199
Time SBP < 80 mmHg (%) 21.3 (16.8–23.7) 18.6 (13.9–33.6) 29.8 (17.7–35.2) 0.481 34.5 (13.1–43.5) 12.4 (6.4–22.8) 0.139
Time SBP > 90 mmHg (%) 1.3 (0–8.7) 0 (0–2.5) 3.1 (0.1–28.1) 0.155 3.3 (0.5–18.3) 4.9 (3.3–17.7) 0.436
MDPE − 2.6 (− 3.5 to − 1.7) − 3.5 (− 5.3 to − 0.6) − 3.5 (− 4.7 to − 2.1) 0.729 − 2.8 (− 4.9 to − 1.9) − 3.5 (− 3.5 to 0.6) 0.587
MDAPE 3.6 (3.1–4.6) 3.5 (2.9–5.3) 4.7 (4.4–7.4) 0.071 4.5 (3.4–6.3) 3.5 (2.9–5.9) 0.587
Wobble 2.9 (2–3.7) 2.4 (1.8–3.5) 2.9 (2.4–7.1) 0.227 3.3 (2.9–4.2) 2.4 (1.8–4.1) 0.264
Global score 8 (6.8–12.4) 8.3 (5.5–16) 13.4 (9.4–31.9) 0.123 13 (9–23.1) 7 (5.7–17.5) 0.277
Interventions or adjustments (n) 29.5 (24.5–38) 1159 (792.5–1382) 37.8 (19–52) < 0.001 20 (16–31.5) 55 (30–112) 0.002
  1. Data are presented as median [interquartile range (lower quartile to upper quartile)]
  2. M-F manual fluid, CL-PI closed-loop using a PI algorithm, CL-FL closed-loop using a FL algorithm, M-FNE manual fluid and norepinephrine, CL-FNE closed-loop administration of fluid and norepinephrine, SBP systolic arterial pressure, MDPE median performance error, MDAPE median absolute value of performance error
  3. *p value is for Kruskal–Wallis test; **p value is for Mann–Whitney test; p < 0.0001 in Dunn’s multiple comparisons versus M-F