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Table 1 Characteristics of the trials included in the analysis

From: Perioperative statin therapy in cardiac and non-cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Trial Journal Surgical procedure Number of patients Statin Statin regimen Control Patients naïve to statin therapy (%) Outcomes for meta-analysis Risk of bias
Cardiac surgery
Almansob 2012 Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Non-coronary cardiac surgery 132 Simvastatin 20 mg 5–7 days pre-op and post-op day 2 No treatment nr MI, S, M High
Aydin 2015 Anatol J Cardiol On-pump CABG 60 Atorvastatin 7 h post-op and 30 days post-op No treatment 100 MI, M High
Baran 2011 Stem Cell Rev and Rep On-pump CABG 60 Atorvastatin 40 mg 14 days pre-op and post-op (no day 0) Placebo 100 AKI, MI, S, M, RRT High
Berkan 2008 Thorac Cardiov Surg On-pump CABG 46 Fluvastatin 80 mg 3 weeks pre-op Placebo 100 MI High
Billings 2016 JAMA On-/Off-pump cardiac surgery 615 Atorvastatin 40 mg Bid day 1, qd day 0, and qd post-op° Placebo 32 AKI, MI, S, M, RRT Low
Carrascal 2016 Journal of Arrhythmia Valvular surgery 90 Atorvastatin 40 mg 7 days pre-op and 7 days post-op No treatment 100 AKI, MI, S, M, RRT High
Castaño 2015 J Cardiovasc Surg On-pump CABG 30 Pravastatin 40 or 80 mg 2 h pre-op Placebo 0 AKI, MI, S, M, RRT Low
Chello 2006 Crit Care Med On-pump CABG 40 Atorvastatin 20 mg 3 weeks pre-op Placebo 100 AKI, MI, S, M Unclear
Christenson 1998 Eur J Cardiothorac Surg On-pump CABG 77 Simvastatin 20 mg 4 weeks pre-op No treatment nr AKI, MI, M High
Dehghani 2014 J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther Valvular surgery 58 Atorvastatin 40 mg 3 days pre-op and 5 days post-op Placebo 100 MI, S, M High
Hua 2017 Biomed Res Int Valvular surgery 130 Simvastatin 20 mg 5–7 days pre-op and 7 days post-op (no days 0–1). Placebo 100 M High
Ji 2009 Circ J Off-pump CABG 140 Atorvastatin 20 mg 7 days pre-op Placebo 100 MI, S, M High
Mannacio 2008 J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg On-pump CABG 200 Rosuvastatin 20 mg 7 days pre-op Placebo 100 AKI, MI, S, M High
Mansour 2016 Int J Adv Biomed Cardiac surgery 50 Atorvastatin 40 mg 7 days pre-op and post-op No treatment 100 MI, S, M High
Nakamura 2006 Cytokine On-/Off-pump CABG 31 Atorvastatin 10 mg Unclear No treatment 32 M Unclear
Park 2016 Intensive Care Med Valvular surgery 200 Atorvastatin 40 mg Bid day − 1 and qd days 0–1–2 Placebo 100 AKI, MI, S, M, RRT Low
Patti 2006 Circulation On-pump cardiac surgery 200 Atorvastatin 40 mg 7 days pre-op and post-op until discharge (no day 0) Placebo 100 MI, M High
Prowle 2012 Nephrology On-pump cardiac surgery 100 Atorvastatin 40 mg Days 0–1–2–3 Placebo 30 AKI, M, RRT Low
Song 2008 Am Heart J Off-pump CABG 124 Atorvastatin 20 mg 3 days pre-op and continued for 30 days post-op No treatment 100 MI, S High
Spadaccio 2010 J Cardiovasc Pharmacol On-pump CABG 50 Atorvastatin 20 mg 3 weeks pre-op Placebo 100 AKI, MI, S, M Unclear
Sun 2011 Int Heart J On-pump CABG 100 Atorvastatin 20 mg 7 days pre-op Placebo 100 MI High
Tamayo 2009 J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg On-pump CABG 44 Simvastatin 20 mg 3 weeks pre-op No treatment 100 M High
Vukovic 2010 Perfusion On-pump CABG 57 Atorvastatin 20 mg 3 weeks pre-op Placebo 100 MI, M High
Youn 2011 Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Off-pump CABG 142 Rosuvastatin 40 mg Bid day 1, qd day 0 No treatment 45 MI, M High
Zheng 2016 N Engl J Med On–/Off-pump CABG/AVR/CABG + AVR 1922 Rosuvastatin 20 mg 1–8 days pre-op and 5 days post-op Placebo 66 AKI, MI, S, M, RRT Low
Non-cardiac surgery
Amar 2015 J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pulmonary resection 88 Atorvastatin 40 mg 7 days pre-op and 7 days post-op Placebo 100 MI, M High
Bass 2018 HSSJ Hip fracture and total hip/knee replacement surgery 20 Atorvastatin 40 mg 4 days pre-op and 45 days post-op Placebo 100 AKI, MI, S, M High
Berwanger 2017 Am Heart J Non-cardiac surgery in high-risk patientsa 642 Atorvastatin 80 mg 1 day pre-op and seven days post-op Placebo 100 AKI, MI, S, M High
Durazzo 2004 J Vasc Surg Aortic, femoropopliteal, and carotid vascular surgery 100 Atorvastatin 20 mg At least 14 days pre-op and up to 4 weeks post-op Placebo 100 MI, S, M Low
Neilipovitz 2012 Can J Anaesth Non-cardiac surgery in high-risk patientsb 76 Atorvastatin 80 mg 7 days pre-op and 7 days post-op or day 0 and 7 days post-op Placebo 100 MI, S, M High
Parepa 2017 Farmacia Elective non-cardiac, non- vascular surgery without known cardiac disease 1380 Rosuvastatin 10 mg 10 days pre-op and 20 days post-op Placebo 100 MI, M High
Shyamsundar 2014 Annals of Surgery Esophagectomy 31 Simvastatin 80 mg 4 days pre-op and 7 days post-op Placebo 100 AKI, MI, S, M Unclear
Singh 2016 J Am Coll Surg Colorectal resection or reversal of Hartmann’s procedure surgery 132 Simvastatin 40 mg 3–7 days pre-op and 14 days post-op Placebo 100 M Low
Xia 2014 Cardiology Urgent abdominal surgeryc in patients with stable CAD 500 Atorvastatin 80 mg 2 h before surgery Placebo 0 MI, M Low
Xia 2015 Cardiology Urgent abdominal surgeryc in patients with stable CAD 550 Rosuvastatin 20 mg 2 h before surgery Placebo 0 MI, S, M Unclear
  1. AKI, acute kidney injury; AVR, aortic valve replacement; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CAD, coronary artery disease; M, mortality; MI, myocardial infarction; RRT, renal replacement therapy; nr, not reported; pre-op, pre-operatively; post-op, post-operatively; day 0, the morning of the day of surgery; qd, once a day; bid, twice a day; °, patients on chronic statin therapy received study drug only on day 0 and day 1, resuming chronic statin therapy on postoperative day 2
  2. aDefined as: history of CAD, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, major vascular surgery, or any 3 of 7 risk factors criteria (intrathoracic or intraperitoneal surgery, congestive heart failure, transient ischemic attack, diabetes, renal failure, age > 70 years, or emergent/urgent surgery)
  3. bDefined as: history of CAD, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, or congestive heart failure, or three of six risk factor (high-risk surgery, previous congestive heart failure, diabetes, renal failure, age > 70 years, previous transient ischemic attack)
  4. cAcute suppurative appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, acute cholangitis, acute pancreatitis, peptic ulcer perforation or urinary calculi