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Table 1 Baseline and procedural characteristics

From: Fluoroscopy-guided simultaneous distal perfusion as a preventive strategy of limb ischemia in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

  DPC group (n = 96) No-DPC group (n = 134) p value DPC versus No-DPC
Fluoroscopy-guided (n = 61) No fluoroscopy-guided (n = 35) p value
Age (years) 55.2 ± 16.7 55.7 ± 16.2 0.143 58.5 ± 13.7 0.106
Gender (male) 39 (63.9) 20 (57.1) 0.735 89 (66.4) 0.439
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.0 ± 3.1 25.0 ± 3.9 < 0.001 25.6 ± 3.9 < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus 16 (26.2) 10 (28.6) 0.260 46 (34.3) 0.243
Hypertension 22 (36.1) 10 (28.6) 0.790 51 (38.1) 0.462
Dyslipidemia 11 (18.0) 2 (5.7) 0.016 9 (6.7) 0.083
Current smoker 13 (21.3) 12 (34.3) 0.959 29 (21.6) 0.438
Chronic kidney disease 4 (6.6) 2 (5.7) 0.688 11 (8.2) 0.576
Peripheral vascular disease 2 (3.3) 0 (0) 0.670 3 (2.2) 0.936
Previous MI 10 (16.4) 7 (20.0) 0.396 29 (21.6) 0.462
Previous PCI 9 (14.8) 7 (20.0) 0.217 30 (22.4) 0.285
Previous CABG 1 (1.6) 1 (2.9) 0.136 9 (6.7) 0.104
Previous CVA 5 (8.5) 2 (5.7) 0.858 10 (7.5) 0.961
Clinical presentation    0.002   0.061
 Ischemic cardiomyopathy 32 (52.5) 10 (28.6)   58 (43.3)  
 Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy 13 (21.3) 5 (14.3)   21 (15.7)  
 Septic shock 0 (0) 6 (17.1)   4 (3.0)  
 Refractory arrhythmia 8 (13.1) 1 (2.9)   4 (3.0)  
 Other causes 8 (13.1) 13 (37.1)   47 (35.1)  
Purpose of ECMO implantation    0.035   0.121
 Bridge to recovery 49 (80.3) 32 (91.4)   122 (91.0)  
 Bridge to transplantation 12 (19.7) 3 (8.6)   12 (9.0)  
ECPR 24 (39.3) 17 (48.6) 0.002 84 (62.7) 0.003
Initial ECMO pump flow (L/min) 3.0 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 0.5 0.722 3.1 ± 1.1 0.729
Operating site of ECMO    < 0.001   < 0.001
 Intensive care unit 0 (0) 21 (60.0)   31 (23.1)  
 Catheterization laboratory room 56 (91.8) 0 (0)   33 (24.6)  
 Emergency room 4 (6.6) 7 (20.0)   27 (20.1)  
 Operating room 0 (0) 4 (11.4)   17 (12.7)  
 Others 1 (1.6) 3 (8.6)   26 (19.4)  
Arterial catheter size (Fr.) 15.3 ± 0.7 15.4 ± 0.9 0.061 15.3 ± 0.8 0.080
Venous catheter sized (Fr.) 22.4 ± 1.5 21.9 ± 0.7 0.010 21.5 ± 2.4 0.019
Large arterial cannulaa 10 (16.4) 9 (25.7) 0.055 41 (30.6) 0.066
During ECMO support
 Anticoagulation therapy 52 (85.2) 25 (71.4) 0.001 84 (62.7) 0.004
 Left ventricular venting 16 (26.2) 3 (8.6) 0.003 13 (9.7) 0.029
 Distal perfusion 61 (100.0) 35 (100.0) < 0.001 21 (15.7) < 0.001
 Continuous renal replacement therapy 18 (29.5) 16 (45.7) 0.177 53 (39.6) 0.524
 Intra-aortic balloon pump 2 (3.3) 1 (2.9) 0.696 6 (4.5) 0.602
 Mechanical ventilation 47 (77.0) 27 (77.1) 0.318 94 (70.1) 0.243
Laboratory findings
 Creatinine (mg/dL) (just before ECMO insertion) 1.4 (1.0–1.54) 1.2 (0.8–1.4) 0.391 1.3 (0.9–1.9) 0.779
 Lactate (mmol/L) (just before ECMO insertion) 4.9 (2.8–9.2) 5.7 (2.0–10.4) 0.051 5.3 (2.1–10.1) 0.683
 Lactate (mmol/L) (24 h after ECMO insertion) 1.9 (1.4–3.1) 2.2 (1.1–4.9) 0.300 2.1 (0.0–3.9) 0.700
Duration of ECMO support (day) 3.4 (2.1–7.5) 4.0 (2.0–6.3) 0.013 2.0 (1.0–5.0) 0.052
Length of ICU stay (day) 10.0 (3.5–19.0) 6.0 (1.0–15.5) 0.518 5.0 (1.0–10.0) 0.012
Length of hospital stay (day) 27.0 (14.0–73.0) 24.0 (7.5–49.8) 0.271 14.0 (5.0–34.0) 0.030
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range), or n (%)
  2. CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, CVA cerebrovascular accident, DPC distal perfusion catheter, ECPR extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ICU intensive care unit, MI myocardial infarction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  3. aWe considered patient used 16–21-Fr. catheter as patient used large arterial catheter