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Table 2 Characteristics and outcome of 249 mechanically ventilated patients with or without moderate-to-large pleural effusion at first spontaneous breathing trial

From: Pleural effusion during weaning from mechanical ventilation: a prospective observational multicenter study

Variables Moderate-to-large pleural effusion p value
Absent (n = 168) Present (n = 81)
Male gender 98 (58%) 52 (64%) 0.38
Age (years) 61 [50–72] 69 [60–80] < 0.001
SAPS II score at ICU admission 49 [37–62] 52 [41–67] 0.07
Comorbidities
Neurological disease 22 (13%) 6 (7%) 0.18
Cardiac disease 93 (55%) 65 (80%) < 0.001
Cirrhosis 12 (7%) 9 (11%) 0.29
Chronic renal failure 22 (13%) 16 (20%) 0.17
Cancer or hematological malignancy 16 (10%) 22 (27%) < 0.001
Main reason for intubation
Coma 54 (32%) 9 (11%) < 0.001
Acute respiratory failure 51 (30%) 37 (46%) 0.02
Septic shock 22 (13%) 12 (15%) 0.71
Others 41 (24%) 23 (28%) 0.5
From ICU admission to first SBT
ARDS 32 (19%) 23 (28%) 0.096
Duration of MV before the first SBT 4 [2–7] 4 [3–9] 0.09
Dialysis 15 (9%) 16 (20%) 0.015
Biological and ultrasound data at first SBT
Serum creatinine (µmol/L) 74 [55–119] 90 [60–164] 0.07
Serum protide (mg/L) 59 [54–66] 59 [51–63] 0.19
Bilateral pleural effusion 16 (10%) 60 (74%) < 0.001
Maximal interpleural distance (mm) 0 [0–5] 27 [20–41] < 0.001
Condensation or atelectasis of lung adjacent to the pleural effusion at ultrasound 68 (84%)  
Left ventricle ejection fraction (%) 60 [50–60] 50 [39–60] < 0.001
Outcome
Pleural effusion drainage during weaning 0 4 (5%) 0.005
Prophylactic NIV post-extubation 62 (38%) 33 (43%) 0.39
Failure of the first SBT 19 (11%) 27 (33%) < 0.001
Extubation failure 24 (15%) 15 (20%) 0.31
Weaning failurea 36 (22%) 37 (47%) < 0.001
Weaning groupb    0.03
Short weaning 118 (70%) 43 (53%)  
Difficult weaning 38 (20%) 26 (32%)  
Prolonged weaning 16 (10%) 12 (15%)  
Tracheotomy 4 (2%) 2 (3%) 0.97
VFD from first SBT to day 28 (days) 23 [16–26] 21 [5–24] 0.01
Death in ICU 14 (8%) 13 (16%) 0.07
Death at day 28 14 (8%) 14 (17%) 0.04
  1. Values are indicating number (%) or median [1st–3rd quartile]
  2. aAccording to the international conference consensus (three patients could not be classified)
  3. bAccording to the WIND study classification
  4. SAPS II simplified acute physiology score, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, SBT spontaneous breathing trial, NIV noninvasive ventilation, ICU intensive care unit, VFD ventilator-free days