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Fig. 1 | Annals of Intensive Care

Fig. 1

From: Practical approach to diastolic dysfunction in light of the new guidelines and clinical applications in the operating room and in the intensive care

Fig. 1

Progression from normal diastolic function to worsening degrees of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). The top row a illustrates the respective changes in left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) pressures with the progression of LVDD. The middle and bottom rows show examples of the patterns of transmitral blood flow (b) and of tissue Doppler imaging of the mitral annulus (c). These patterns are shown for each stage of LVDD, with corresponding changes of the E and e′ (early), and A and a′ (atrial) waves. From left to right, 2a: normal diastolic function (E > A; e′ > a′); 2b: LVDD grade I (E < A; e′ < a′); 2c: LVDD grade II (E > A; e′ < a′); 2d: LVDD grade III (EA; e′ a′)

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