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Table 3 Hemodynamic drug support and RCTs in septic shock

From: Hemodynamic support in the early phase of septic shock: a review of challenges and unanswered questions

Acronym Studied drugs Type of study No. of patients (n) Primary outcome Main results Authors [ref.]
VASST AVP versus NE RCT, double blind, multicenter 778 (396 vs. 382) Mortality at day 28 No difference; significantly lower mortality in patients with NE < 15 µg/min Russell et al. [12]
VASST (post hoc according to sepsis 3.0) AVP versus NE RCT, double blind, multicenter 375 (193 vs. 182) Mortality at day 28 Significantly lower mortality in patients with lactate ≤ 2 mmol/L Russell et al. [77]
VANISH AVP versus NE (subsequently HCT versus placebo) 2 × 2 RCT, double blind, multicenter 409 (104 vs. 103 vs. 101 vs. 101) Kidney failure-free days until day 28 No difference Gordon et al. [41]
VANC AVP versus NE RCT, double blind, single center 300 (149 vs. 151) Mortality and/or severe complications Significantly less acute renal failure and atrial fibrillation Hajjar et al. [78]
SEPSIS-ACT Selepressin versus NE RCT, double blind, multicenter 53 (32 vs. 21) MAP > 65 mmHg without NE; NE dose Significantly lower NE load, less net fluid intake, more ventilator-free days Russell et al. [81]
LeoPARDS Levosimendan versus standard treatment alone RCT, double blind, multicenter 516 (259 vs. 257) SOFA score up to day 28 No difference; higher incidence in supraventricular tachyarrhythmia Gordon et al. [83]
ATHOS-3 Angiotensin II versus NE RCT, double blind, multicenter 321 (163 vs. 158) Target MAP > 75 mmHg at 3 h Significantly more patients with target achieved; higher reduction in SOFA score at 48 h Khanna et al. [86]
nn Esmolol versus conventional treatment Open label, RCT, single center 154 (77 vs. 77) 80 < heart rate < 95 over 96 h Significantly lower mortality at day 28 Morelli et al. [88]
  1. RCTs randomized clinical trials, NE norepinephrine, AVP arginine vasopressin, HCT hydrocortisone, nn no name