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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics

From: Melatonin and cortisol exhibit different circadian rhythm profiles during septic shock depending on timing of onset: a prospective observational study

Parameter Group A (N = 15) Group Β (N = 11) p value
Age (years) 60.4 ± 25.3 60.9 ± 20.1 0.823
Sex, male/female 9/6 8/3 0.877
Diagnosis Pneumonia (n = 7) Multi-trauma patients (n = 5)  
Abscess (n = 1) Aortic aneurysm rapture (n = 2)
Intra-abdominal sepsis (n = 2) Acute pulmonary edema (n = 2)
Bacteraemia (n = 4) Postoperative respiratory failure (n = 1)
Urinary tract sepsis (n = 1) Postsurgical stabilization (n = 1)
APACHE II score 20.9 ± 8.2 18.9 ± 4 0.653
SAPS II score 44.4 ± 16.6 43.1 ± 15.1 0.642
Sepsis SOFA score 7.3 ± 3.3 7.9 ± 3.4 0.454
Ramsay score 4.7 ± 2.5 5.5 ± 1.8 0.547
Time of septic shock onset Upon admission (12.8 ± 8.7 h) 7.5 ± 3.4 days  
Length of ICU stay, (days) 10.1 ± 10.2 18.5 ± 11.8 0.234
Died in ICU 2 3  
Cause of death in ICU Septic shock—MODS (n = 2) Multi-relapsed septic episodes—MODS (n = 2)  
AKI—liver dysfunction (n = 1)
Length of hospital stay, (days) 26 ± 21.1 26.4 ± 12.2 0.742
Died in hospital 3 1  
Cause of death in hospital Septic shock—MODS (n = 1) Intra-abdominal sepsis (n = 1)  
Intra-abdominal sepsis—(n = 1)
Hemorrhagic shock (n = 1)
  1. Values are (Mean ± SD), p value for statistical comparison by t-test
  2. p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant
  3. APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, h hours, ICU Intensive Care Unit, MODS Multi-Organ Dysfunction Syndrome, NS no significant, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SOFA Specific Organ Failure Assessment