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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Proportional modes versus pressure support ventilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study/year Country Study type Type of ICU/inclusion criteria Sample size (% female) Mean or median age Type of experiment Intervention Control
Colombo/2008 [29] Italy Crossover Mixed ICU/patients on partial ventilator support 14 (14.2) 55.4 Physiological/20 min NAVA (support level was to obtain similar peak inspiratory pressure to the PSV) PSV (support level was to obtain VT of 6–8 ml/kg PBW)
Xirouchaki/2008 [22] Greece Parallel Mixed ICU/patients on CMV > 36 h and awaiting weaning 208 (33.7) 59–63 Clinical/Weaning (48 h) (weaning failure was defined as the need for switching to a controlled mode or reintubation after extubation) PAV+ PSV
Spahija/2010 [30] Canada Crossover Mixed ICU/patients on MV for ARF and ready to be wean 14 (57.1) 69.4 Physiological/10 min NAVA (support level was to obtain similar peak inspiratory pressure to the PSV) PSV (support level was to obtain VT of 6–8 ml/kg PBW)
Patroniti/2012 [31] Italy Crossover Medical ICU/patients on MV for ARF 15 (40) 67.9 Physiological/10 min NAVA (support level was 1 cm H2O/μV) PSV (support level was 8 cm H2O)
Elganady/2014 [23] Egypt Parallel Medical ICU/patients with acute exacerbation of COPD and on MV > 24 h 60 (18.3) 59.7 Clinical/weaning (weaning failure was defined as the need for switching to a controlled mode or reintubation after extubation) PAV+ PSV
Doorduin/2015 [32] Netherlands Crossover Medical ICU/patients on MV for ARDS 12 (16.7) 64.1 Physiological/30 min NAVA (support level was to obtain similar peak inspiratory pressure to the PSV) PSV (support level was to obtain VT of 6 ml/kg PBW)
Schmidt/2015 [15] France Crossover Mixed ICU/patients on MV > 48 h for ARF and awaiting weaning 16 (37.5) 67 Physiological/30 min PAV+/NAVA (support level was to obtain VT of 6–8 ml/kg PBW) PSV (support level was to obtain VT of 6–8 ml/kg PBW)
Bosma/2016 [24] Canada Parallel Mixed ICU/MV > 36 h, SBT failure 50 (50) 64.8 Clinical/weaning (weaning failure was not defined) PAV+ PSV
Carteaux/2016 [33] France Crossover Medical ICU/patients on MV and recovering from ARF 11 (54.5) 69.8 Physiological/5–10 min NAVA (support level was 0.5 cm H2O/μV) PSV (support level was 10 cm H2O)
Demoule/2016 [25] France Parallel Multicenter (medical/mixed/surgical)/patients who required endotracheal MV > 24 h for ARF and awaiting weaning 128 (32.8) 64–66 Clinical/Weaning (14 days) (weaning failure was defined as the need for switching to a controlled mode) NAVA PSV
Di Mussi/2016 [26] Italy Parallel Mixed ICU/patients requiring CMV > 72 h for ARF 25 (44) 68.2 Physiological/48 h NAVA (support level was titrated according to an initial steep increase PAO and VT) PSV (support level was to obtain VT of 5–8 ml/kg PBW)
Kuo/2016 [27] Taiwan Parallel Medical ICU/patients aged ≥ 45 years, and received MV > 21 days for COPD exacerbation 33 (27.3) 77.9 Clinical/weaning (weaning failure was not defined) NAVA PSV
Costa/2017 [34] Italy Crossover Surgical ICU/patients on partial ventilator support < 72 h 13 (23.1) 58.9 Physiological/25 min NAVA (support level was to obtain similar VT and EAdi to the PSV) PSV (support level was to obtain VT of 6–8 ml/kg PBW)
Ferreira/2017 [35] Brazil Crossover Medical ICU/patients on MV > 48 h and considered to be ready for SBT 20 (35) 60 Physiological/30 min (SBT) NAVA (support level was to obtain similar peak inspiratory pressure to the PSV) PSV (support level was 5 cm H2O)
Botha/2018 [28] Australia Parallel Mixed ICU/patients on CMV and suitable for > 48 h of weaning on a spontaneous mode 49 (40.8) 63 Clinical/weaning (weaning failure was defined as the need for reintubation after extubation) PAV+ PSV
  1. ICU intensive care unit, PAV proportional assist ventilation, NAVA neurally adjusted ventilatory assist, PSV pressure support ventilation, MV mechanical ventilation, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ARF acute respiratory failure, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, SBT spontaneous breathing trial, NR not reported, CMV controlled mechanical ventilation, SBT spontaneous breathing trial, VT tidal volume, EAdi diaphragm electrical activity