Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients

From: Concurrent initiation of intra-aortic balloon pumping with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation reduced in-hospital mortality in postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock

  All (N = 152) Survivors (N = 73) Non-survivors (N = 79) P value
Age (years) 49.5 ± 14.1 48.1 ± 14.8 50.8 ± 13.5 0.245
Men [n (%)] 112 (73.7) 58 (79.5) 54 (68.4) 0.121
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.6 (20.8, 25.9) 23.4 (20.7, 25.7) 23.7 (20.9, 26.6) 0.622
Comorbidities [n (%)]
 Hypertension 39 (25.7) 11 (15.1) 28 (35.4) 0.004
 Hyperlipidemia 33 (21.7) 11 (15.1) 22 (27.8) 0.056
 Diabetes mellitus 20 (13.2) 8 (11.0) 12 (15.2) 0.441
 PH 37 (24.3) 21 (28.8) 16 (20.3) 0.222
 Atrial fibrillation 43 (28.3) 20 (27.4) 23 (29.1) 0.814
Current smoking [n (%)] 20 (13.2) 6 (8.2) 12 (15.2) 0.184
Remote MI [n (%)] 27 (17.8) 14 (19.2) 13 (16.5) 0.661
History of cardiac surgery [n (%)] 22 (14.5) 12 (16.4) 10 (12.7) 0.508
NYHA [n (%)]     0.084
 I 28 (18.4) 9 (12.3) 19 (24.1)  
 II 29 (19.1) 12 (16.4) 17 (21.5)  
 III 62 (40.8) 31 (42.5) 31 (39.2)  
 IV 33 (21.7) 21 (28.8) 12 (15.2)  
Surgery procedure [n (%)]
 Heart transplantation 49 (32.2) 33 (45.2) 16 (20.3) 0.001
 CABG alone 26 (17.1) 8 (11.0) 18 (22.8) 0.053
 Valvular surgery alone 18 (11.8) 8 (11.0) 10 (12.7) 0.746
 CABG + valvular surgery 10 (6.6) 3 (4.1) 7 (8.9) 0.331
 CHD surgery 14 (9.2) 4 (5.5) 10 (12.7) 0.126
 Aortic surgery 12 (7.9) 3 (4.1) 9 (11.4) 0.096
 Emergency 25 (16.4) 9 (12.3) 16 (20.3) 0.188
 Off-pump 10 (6.6) 3 (4.1) 7 (8.9) 0.238
CPB time (min) 284.7 ± 146.1 289.3 ± 166.5 279.5 ± 120.6 0.712
Aortic cross-clamping time (min) 83.0 (59.5, 119.5) 83.0 (60.8, 114.0) 83.0 (50.0, 137.3) 0.901
Preoperative test
 Albumin (g/L) 41.0 (38.4, 45.0) 41.0 (38.4, 45.5) 40.8 (38.2, 44.7) 0.529
 Total bilirubin (μmol/L) 24.9 (16.3, 38.5) 27.1 (18.7, 39.8) 23.8 (16.1, 35.3) 0.341
 Creatinine (μmol/L) 86.1 (72.7, 105) 87.6 (74.9, 106.2) 84.6 (71.5, 104.5) 0.589
 PT (s) 14.0 (13.2, 16.0) 14.1 (13.2, 16.2) 14.0 (13.3, 15.8) 0.882
 LDH (IU/L) 214 (174, 288) 221 (178, 313) 207 (172, 275) 0.247
 NT-proBNP (μmol/L) 1448 (719, 2909) 1563 (971, 3046) 1234 (508, 2356) 0.110
 LVEF (%) 48.6 ± 17.5 43.3 ± 18.6 53.0 ± 15.4 0.001
 LVEDD (mm) 56.8 ± 14.1 60.4 ± 15.5 53.8 ± 12.2 0.015
Pre-ECMO implantation [n (%)]
 Secondary thoracotomy 45 (29.6) 14 (19.2) 31 (39.2) 0.007
 Cardiac arrest/VF 35 (23.0) 8 (11.0) 27 (34.2) 0.001
ECMO implantation [n (%)]
 Bedside 41 (27.0) 8 (11.0) 33 (41.8) < 0.001
 IABP implantation 77 (50.7) 37 (50.7) 40 (50.6) 0.995
  Concurrent initiation 49 (32.2) 30 (41.1) 19 (24.1) 0.025
  IABP first 14 (9.2) 3 (4.1) 11 (13.9) 0.037
  ECMO first 14 (9.2) 4 (5.5) 10 (12.7) 0.126
Supporting time (days)
 ECMO 4.8 ± 2.7 5.2 ± 2.2 4.3 ± 3.0 0.047
 IABP 6.6 ± 4.2 7.4 ± 2.7 5.9 ± 5.2 0.140
  1. Characteristics of survivors and non-survivors were compared. Continuous variables with normal distribution were compared by Student’s t test. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages and compared by Chi-square test
  2. CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, CHD congenital heart disease, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, IABP intra-aortic balloon pump, LDH lactic dehydrogenase, MI myocardial infarction, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, NYHA New York Heart Association classification of heart failure, PH pulmonary arterial hypertension, PT prothrombin time, VF ventricular fibrillation