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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics in pre-matched groups

From: Impact of levosimendan on weaning from peripheral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in intensive care unit

Variables Total Levosimendan P value
(n = 150) Yes (n = 51) No (n = 99)  
Length of stay in hospital before VA-ECMO (days) 5.1 ± 8.6 6.4 ± 8.5 4.4 ± 8.5 0.18
Length of stay in ICU before VA-ECMO (days) 1.1 ± 4.1 0.6 ± 1.6 1.3 ± 4.9 0.16
Clinical characteristics at ICU admission
 Simplified Acute Physiology Score 2 59.2 ± 19.7 55.5 ± 19.6 61 ± 19.5 0.1
 Male 98 (65.3) 36 (70.6) 62 (62.6) 0.37
 Age (years) 53.4 ± 15 53.6 ± 15.4 53.2 ± 14.9 0.87
 Body mass index > 30 kg/m2 33 (22) 8 (15.7) 25 (25.3) 0.22
 Previous coronary artery disease 44 (29.3) 17 (33.3) 27 (27.3) 0.45
 Hypertension 65 (43.3) 20 (39.2) 45 (45.5) 0.49
 Chronic renal failure with dialysis 15 (10) 6 (11.8) 9 (9.1) 0.78
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 8 (5.3) 3 (5.9) 5 (5.1) 1
 Diabetes mellitus 54 (36) 19 (37.3) 35 (35.4) 0.86
 History of congestive heart failure 35 (23.3) 17 (33.3) 18 (18.2) 0.04
 Immunosuppression 5 (3.3) 2 (3.9) 3 (3) 1
 Liver cirrhosis 3 (2) 2 (3.9) 1 (1) 0.27
 Cancer 1 (0.7) 0 1 (1) 1
 Smoking (current or former) 47 (31.3) 17 (33.3) 30 (30.3) 0.71
 Hazardous alcohol use 30 (20) 11 (21.6) 19 (19.2) 0.83
 Glasgow Coma Scale score 12.7 ± 4.6 13.8 ± 3.6 12.2 ± 4.9 0.029
 Catecholamines 149 (99.3) 51 (100) 98 (99) 1
 Mechanical ventilation 137 (91.3) 47 (92.2) 90 (90.9) 1
 Renal replacement therapy 61 (40.7) 20 (39.2) 41 (41.4) 0.86
 Total bilirubin level (µmol/L) 31.6 ± 39.8 35.5 ± 50.8 29.6 ± 32.9 0.49
 Platelet count (G/L) 154 ± 93 160 ± 107 151 ± 85 0.56
 Prothrombin (%) 47.5 ± 20 50.3 ± 16.8 46.1 ± 21.4 0.22
 Hemoglobin level (g/dL) 10.3 ± 7.5 11.5 ± 12.5 9.6 ± 2.3 0.16
 Creatinine level (µmol/L) 172 ± 138 173 ± 131 171 ± 143 0.45
 Left ventricular ejection fraction (%) 19.9 ± 6.7 19.1 ± 6.8 20.3 ± 6.6 0.36
Reason for VA-ECMO     0.024
 Cardiac arrest 4 (2.7) 2 (3.9) 2 (2)  
 Dilated cardiomyopathy 10 (6.7) 5 (9.8) 5 (5.1)  
 Myocarditis 7 (4.7) 1 (2) 6 (6.1)  
 Acute myocardial infarction 44 (29.3) 14 (27.5) 30 (30.3)  
 Post-cardiotomy 49 (32.7) 24 (47.1) 25 (25.3)  
 Acute respiratory distress syndrome 3 (2) 0 3 (3)  
Percutaneous implantation of VA-ECMO 66 (44) 21 (41.2) 45 (45.5) 0.73
Hemodynamic parameters (first 24 h post-VA-ECMO)
 VA-ECMO flow (L/min) 3.65 ± 0.62 3.87 ± 0.69 3.59 ± 0.61 0.29
 Maximal dose of norepinephrine (µg/kg/min) 0.74 ± 0.69 0.74 ± 0.62 0.74 ± 0.72 0.62
 Maximal dose of Dobutamine (µg/kg/min) 10.1 ± 4.3 10.7 ± 4.5 9.8 ± 4.2 0.32
 Intra-aortic balloon pump 42 (28) 16 (31.4) 26 (26.3) 0.32
VA-ECMO duration (day) 11.6 ± 11 12.3 ± 11.8 11.2 ± 10.6 0.23
  1. Results are expressed as mean ± SD or number (%)
  2. VA-ECMO venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ICU intensive care unit