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Table 3 Effects of chloride content of intravenous crystalloid solutions on in-hospital mortality by subgroups

From: Effects of chloride content of intravenous crystalloid solutions in critically ill adult patients: a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis of randomized trials

Subgroups No. of studies No. of patients RR (M–H, random, 95% CI) p value I2 (%)
Crystalloid fluid type
 LR [20,21,22] 3 150 1.00 [0.07, 15.33] 1.00 NA
 Plasma-Lyte [9, 23, 24] 3 2375 0.91 [0.70, 1.19] 0.50 0
 Mixed of LR and Plasma-Lyte [10, 25] 2 16776 0.93 [0.85, 1.01] 0.08 0
 Test for subgroup differences: χ2 = 0.01, df = 2 (p = 0.99)
Crystalloid fluid volume
 Median or mean volume more than 5L [20, 21, 23] 3 142 0.86 [0.25, 2.94] 0.80 0
 Median or mean volume less than 5L [9, 10, 24, 25] 4 19105 0.92 [0.85,1.00] 0.06 0
 Unclear [22] 1 54 NA NA NA
 Test for subgroup differences: χ2 = 0.01, df = 1 (p = 0.90)
Setting
 ICU [9, 10, 22,23,24,25] 6 19205 0.92 [0.85,1.00] 0.06 0
 Transferred to ICU in perioperative period [20, 21] 2 96 1.00 [0.07, 15.33] 1.0 NA
 Test for subgroup differences: χ2 = 0.00, df = 1 (p = 0.95)
Specific patients
Sepsis
 Yes [9, 10] 2 2420 0.86 [0.75, 0.98] 0.02 0
 No [9, 10, 20,21,22] 5 15794 0.96 [0.86, 1.07] 0.48 0
 Classification not mentioned [23,24,25] 3 1087 0.95 [0.66, 1.37] 0.79 0
 Test for subgroup differences: χ2 = 1.8, df = 2 (p = 0.41)
TBI
 Yes [9, 10] 2 1420 1.11 [0.86, 1.43] 0.43 0
 No [9, 10, 20,21,22] 5 16794 0.90 [0.82, 0.99] 0.02 0
 Classification not mentioned [23,24,25] 3 1087 0.95 [0.66, 1.37] 0.79 0
 Test for subgroup differences: χ2 = 2.31, df = 2 (p = 0.32)
Risk of bias      
 High [10, 23, 25] 3 16822 0.92 [0.85, 1.01] 0.98 0
 Low [9, 20, 22, 24] 4 2449 0.91 [0.69, 1.20] 0.42 0
 Unclear [21] 1 30 NA NA NA
 Test for subgroup differences: χ2 = 0.01, df = 1 (p = 0.93)
Including sample size (in each group)
 Over 1000 [9, 10] 2 18064 0.92 [0.85, 1.00] 0.06 0
 Equal or less than 1000 [20,21,22,23,24,25] 6 1237 0.95 [0.71, 1.28] 0.75 0
 Test for subgroup differences: χ2 = 0.05, df = 1 (p = 0.82)
  1. The random-effects model was applied above
  2. No. number, RR risk ratio, CI confident interval, NA not applicable, ICU intensive care unit, TBI traumatic brain injury