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Table 1 Mechanisms contributing to the development of hyperkalemia

From: Management of hyperkalemia in the acutely ill patient

Mechanisms contributing to the development of hyperkalemia
Increased extracellular K+ Decreased K+ elimination
Tissue injury
 Hemolysis
 Rhabdomyolysis
 Tumor lysis syndrome
K+ shift in extracellular space
 Mineral acidosis (i.e., hyperchoride acidosis)
 Succinylcholine
Inability to enter into myocyte
 Diabetes mellitus
 Hyperglycemia
 Hypertonicity
 β2-receptor antagonists
 Aldosterone blockers
 Cardiac glycosides
High acute iatrogenic K+ load
 Increased dietary intake
 Blood transfusion
 Error of injection
AKI
 Hypovolemia
 Sepsis
Acidosis treatment
 RAAS inhibitor
 Calcineurine inhibitor
 Cardiac glycosides
  1. K+ potassium, RAAS renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system