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Table 1 Characteristics of patients

From: Pulmonary infections prime the development of subsequent ICU-acquired pneumonia in septic shock

Variables No ICU-AI (n = 548) Pulmonary ICU-AI (n = 139) Non-pulmonary ICU-AI (n = 110) p
Age (years) 67 (56–78) 68 (57–78) 69 (57–78) 0.95
Male gender 335 (61) 110 (79) 61 (55) < 0.001
Comorbid conditions
 Immunosuppression 191 (35) 44 (32) 41 (37) 0.65
 Chronic heart failure 130 (24) 25 (18) 22 (20) 0.31
 Diabetes mellitus 111 (20) 22 (16) 22 (20) 0.52
 COPD 93 (17) 25 (18) 17 (16) 0.87
 Chronic renal failure 82 (15) 16 (11) 15 (14) 0.62
 Obesity 59 (11) 11 (8) 13 (12) 0.57
 Cirrhosis 57 (10) 19 (14) 15 (14) 0.39
Characteristics on ICU admission
 SAPS2, points 64 (49–81) 71 (54–88) 78 (57–89) < 0.001
 SOFA score, points 9 (6–12) 10 (6–13) 9 (6–13) 0.05
 Source of infection < 0.001
  Lung 257 (47) 104 (75) 42 (38)
  Digestive 84 (15) 17 (12) 27 (24)
  Urinary 78 (14) 3 (2) 11 (10)
  Skin and soft tissues 41 (7) 3 (2) 5 (4)
  Catheter 33 (6) 3 (2) 8 (7)
  Others 55 (10) 9 (6) 17 (15)
 Microbiological documentation 440 (80) 112 (80) 95 (86)  
  Bacteremia 186 (34) 35 (25) 40 (36) 0.09
  Microorganisms
   Gram-negative bacteria 278 (50) 57 (41) 57 (52) 0.08
   Gram-positive bacteria 151 (28) 49 (35) 33 (30)
   Fungi 10 (2) 6 (4) 4 (4)
   Mycobacteria 1 (0.2) 0 (0) 1 (1)
 Biological findings
  WBC count (per mm3) 13.4 (6.8–22.5) 11.9 (4.7–21.4) 13.6 (7.6–21.9) 0.40
  Serum protein level (g/L) 59 (52–66) 62 (51–68) 55 (47–65) 0.01
  Serum creatinine level (µmol/L) 136 (85–201) 121 (73–204) 138 (80–241) 0.36
  Serum bilirubin level (µmol/L) 12 (8–24) 12.5 (8–25) 13 (8–30) 0.72
  Prothrombin time (%) 60 (46–73) 64 (45–75) 59 (41–71) 0.47
ICU management
 Invasive mechanical ventilation 448 (82) 137 (99) 106 (96) < 0.001
 Renal replacement therapy 197 (36) 83 (60) 76 (69) < 0.001
 Surgical source control 136 (25) 18 (13) 28 (25) 0.01
 Aminoglycosides 321 (59) 64 (46) 69 (63) 0.01
 Stress-dose steroids 228 (42) 70 (53) 64 (59) < 0.001
Outcomes
 Duration of mechanical ventilation (days) 4.5 (2–8) 18 (10–29.5) 13 (8–21) < 0.001
 End-of-life decision 66 (12) 33 (24) 29 (26) < 0.001
 ICU mortality 99 (18) 64 (46) 50 (45) < 0.001
  1. Variables are expressed as median (interquartile range) or number (percentage) as appropriate
  2. ICU intensive care unit, ICU-AI intensive care unit-acquired infections, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SAPS2 Simplified Acute Physiology Score 2, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, WBC white blood cell