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Table 1 Patient and cardiac arrest characteristics

From: Risk factors for progression toward brain death after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

  All patients (n = 214) No brain death (n = 172) Brain death (n = 42) p
Age, years 68 (57–77) 70 (60–78) 58 (45–70) < 0.001
Male gender 119 (56) 101 (59) 18 (43) 0.08
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 85 (40) 70 (41) 15 (36) 0.60
 COPD 58 (27) 45 (26) 13 (31) 0.56
 Congestive heart failure 33 (15) 27 (16) 6 (14) > 0.99
 Diabetes 48 (22) 43 (25) 5 (12) 0.09
 Chronic renal failure 12 (6) 10 (6) 2 (5) 0.17
Presumed cause of cardiac arrest     0.30
 Cardiac 44 (21) 39 (23) 5 (12)  
 Non-cardiac 160 (75) 125 (73) 35 (83)  
 Undetermined 10 (5) 8 (4) 2 (5)  
Location of cardiac arrest     0.48
 Home 165 (77) 130 (76) 35 (83)
 Public place 45 (21) 39 (23) 6 (14)
 Other 4 (2) 3 (2) 1 (2)
Witnessed cardiac arrest 166 (78) 139 (81) 27 (64) 0.02
First recorded cardiac rhythm     0.03
 Shockable 25 (12) 24 (14) 1 (2)
 Non-shockable 189 (88) 148 (86) 41 (98)
Resuscitation     
 Bystander CPR 90 (42) 79 (46) 11 (26) 0.02
 Time from collapse to ROSC, min 25 (15–35) 22 (15–32) 32 (23–46) < 0.001
  No-flow period, min 6 (0–10) 5 (0–10) 10 (5–15) < 0.001
  Low-flow period, min 16 (10–26) 15 (9–25) 22 (15–34) < 0.001
 Dose of epinephrine, mg 3 (1–5) 3 (1–5) 3 (2–6) 0.02
 Number of defibrillation attempts 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0.76
  1. Data are expressed as median (interquartile range) or number (%)
  2. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, OHCA out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ROSC restoration of spontaneous circulation