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Table 1 Population characteristics before and during surgery, according to diaphragm thickening during spontaneous breathing trial

From: Diaphragm thickening in cardiac surgery: a perioperative prospective ultrasound study

Variables All patients (n = 100) Low diaphragm thickening during SBT (n = 75) No low diaphragm thickening during SBT (n = 25) P value
Characteristics
 Age 69 (11) 69 (10) 72 (11) 0.04
 BMI (kg/m2) 26 (5) 27 (5) 24 (6)] 0.02
 Sex (female) 26 (26) 15 (20) 11 (44) 0.1
 COPD 13 (13) 11 (15) 2 (8) 0.7
 Diabetes 7 (7) 6 (8) 1 (4) 1
 Cancer 19 (19) 13 (17) 1 (4) 0.2
 Smokers 41 (41) 32 (43) 9 (36) 0.9
 Euroscore 2 1.6 [1–3] 1.6 [1–3] 1.6 [1–3] 0.7
 Preoperative LVEF (%) 59 (12) 58 (12) 63 (8) 0.3
 Sepsis 1 (1) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1
Type of surgery
 CABG 46 (46) 37 (49) 9 (36) 0.6
 Isolated 37 (37) 29 (39) 8 (32) 0.8
 Grafts     
 Left mammary artery 45 (45) 36 (48) 9 (36) 0.7
 Right mammary artery 27 (27) 23 (31) 4 (16) 0.3
 Gastroepiploic artery 11 (11) 10 (13) 1 (4) 0.5
 Saphenous vein 14 (14) 13 (17) 1 (4) 0.2
 Radial artery 4 (4) 2 (3) 2 (8) 0.3
 Valvular surgery 59 (59) 44 (59) 15 (60) 0.9
 Isolated 37 (37) 25 (33) 12 (48) 0.5
 Aortic 47 (47) 35 (47) 12 (48) 0.8
 Mitral 12 (12) 9 (12) 3 (12) 1
 Pulmonary 3 (3) 3 (4) 0 (0) 1
 Ascending aorta 16 (16) 13 (17) 3 (12) 0.8
 Combined surgery 24 (24) 20 (27) 4 (16) 0.6
 Thoracotomy 6 (6) 5 (7) 1 (4) 1
 Other 3 (3) 1 (1) 2 (8) 0.2
Cooling
 Cool gauze 65 (65) 50 (67) 15 (60) 0.9
 Ice saline 18 (18) 12(16) 6 (26) 0.7
 Pericardial ice 11 (11) 7 (9) 4 (16) 0.5
 No cooling 6 (6) 6 (8) 0 (0) 0.3
 CPB time (min) 97 (33) 103 (35) 83 (24) < 0.01
 Cross-clamp time (min) 59 [47–73] 61 [48–82] 51 [44–59] 0.01
 Surgery duration (h) 5.5 (1) 5.7 (1) 4.8 (0.7) < 0.01
 Postoperative MV (h) 3.4 [3, 4] 3.3 [3, 4] 3.6 [3, 4] 0.08
 Total MV (h) 9 [8–10] 9.1 [8–10] 8.6 [8–10] 0.5
 Vasopressor 32 (32) 24 (32) 8 (32) 0.8
 Propofol (mg) 1326 (439) 1388 (455) 1159 (351) < 0.01
 Remifentanil (µg) 2674 (812) 2873 (763) 2100 (694) < 0.01
 NMBA (mg) 20 [20–28] 24 [20–30] 20 [17–20] 0.06
  1. A low diaphragm thickening was defined as a thickening fraction < 20%
  2. Data are presented as mean and standard deviation, median with first and third quartile or number [−] and percentages ()
  3. BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, LVEF left ventricle ejection fraction, CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, MV mechanical ventilation, NMBA neuromuscular blocking agent