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Table 1 Characteristics of critically ill patients by the presence of acute kidney injury in Korea, 2008 to 2015

From: Changes in acute kidney injury epidemiology in critically ill patients: a population-based cohort study in Korea

  Overall No AKI AKI p value
Number of patients 1,678,089 1,544,968 133,121  
Gender     < 0.001b
 Male 962,594 (57.4) 883,803 (57.2) 78,791 (59.2)  
 Female 715,495 (42.6) 661,165 (42.8) 54,330 (40.8)  
Age, years 64.2 (15.5) 64 (15.5) 67.2 (15.2) < 0.001c
Charlson index 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4) 3 (1–5) < 0.001d
Comorbidity
 Myocardial infarction 95,571 (5.7) 87,606 (5.7) 7965 (6.0) < 0.001b
 Congestive heart failure 195,381 (11.6) 174,071 (11.3) 21,310 (16.0) < 0.001b
 Peripheral vascular disease 276,411 (16.5) 251,706 (16.3) 24,705 (18.6) < 0.001b
 Cerebrovascular disease 421,600 (25.1) 388,951 (25.2) 32,649 (24.5) < 0.001b
 Rheumatologic disease 81,210 (4.8) 73,570 (4.8) 7640 (5.7) <0.001b
 Peptic ulcer disease 517,857 (30.9) 475,376 (30.8) 42,481 (31.9) < 0.001b
 Liver disease 496,684 (29.6) 451,074 (29.2) 45,610 (34.3) < 0.001b
 Diabetes mellitus 570,759 (34.0) 513,760 (33.3) 56,999 (42.8) < 0.001b
 Renal disease 64,066 (3.8) 48,509 (3.1) 15,557 (11.7) < 0.001b
 Cancer 311,745 (18.6) 287,640 (18.6) 24,105 (18.1) < 0.001b
 AIDS/HIV 854 (0.1) 754 (0.1) 100 (0.1) < 0.001b
Type of hospital     < 0.001b
 Tertiary 659,767 (39.3) 607,539 (39.3) 52,228 (39.2)  
 General 962,395 (57.4) 885,015 (57.3) 77,380 (58.1)  
 Nursing care hospital 1089 (0.1) 963 (0.1) 126 (0.1)  
 Other 54,838 (3.3) 51,451 (3.3) 3387 (2.5)  
Management procedures
 Mechanical ventilation 371,592 (22.1) 303,676 (19.7) 67,916 (51.0) < 0.001b
 ECMO 4618 (0.3) 2059 (0.1) 2559 (1.9) < 0.001b
 Vasopressor drugs 190,296 (11.3) 148,062 (9.6) 42,234 (31.7) < 0.001b
Organ dysfunction
 Respiratory 68,061 (4.1) 49,839 (3.2) 18,222 (13.7) < 0.001b
 Cardiovascular 144,774 (8.6) 10,5992 (6.9) 38,782 (29.1) < 0.001b
 Hepatic 7475 (0.5) 5216 (0.3) 2259 (1.7) < 0.001b
 Hematologic 93,124 (5.6) 67,683 (4.4) 25,441 (19.1) < 0.001b
 Neurologic 38,466 (2.3) 31,913 (2.1) 6553 (4.9) < 0.001b
Outcomes
 Hospital mortality 203,373 (12.1) 151,550 (9.8) 51,823 (38.9) < 0.001b
 ICU length of stay, days 3 (2–8) 3 (2–7) 8 (3–22) < 0.001d
 Hospital length of stay, days 13 (7–24) 13 (7–24) 17 (8–35) < 0.001d
 Total cost, USDa 5208 (2617–8814) 5111 (2566–8487) 7386 (3347–15,751) < 0.001d
  1. Values are numbers and proportions, except for age and Charlson index (mean and SD), ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, and total cost (median and interquartile)
  2. AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome, AKI acute kidney injury, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ICU intensive care unit, USD US dollars
  3. a1 USD = 1158 Korean won (exchange rate as of December 1, 2015)
  4. bChi-squared test
  5. cStudent’s t test
  6. dWilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test