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Table 3 Role of suggested biomarkers of delirium according to literature reports

From: Serum biomarkers of delirium in the elderly: a narrative review

Function Assigned biomarker Biomarker of delirium Clinically useful
Cytokine IL-1β
IL-2 ?
IL-6 +
IL-8 ?
IL-12  
IL-18 NR
TNF-α ?
Enzyme Adenylate kinase NR
ASAT ?
Cholinesterase ?
CK NR
CK-BB NR
LDH NR
NSE NR
PI3K NR
Growth factor BDNF +
ILGF-1 +
Hormone Cholecystokinin NR
Cortisol +
Leptin +
Prolactin +
Metabolic product Amyloid + ?
Phenylalanine–tyrosine ratio + ?
Neuronotrophic factor S-100β
SDNF NR
Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine +
Dopamine NR
Histamine NR
Transcription factor CREB NR
Transport protein Albumin + ?
Other AZGP1 +
BUN ?
Creatinine + ?
CRP + +
HSP70 NR
Metalloproteinase-9 + ?
Neopterin + ?
NLR + ?
Procalcitonin + ?
Protein C NR
Thioredoxin +
SERPINA3 +
8-iso-prostaglandin F2α +
  1. NR nothing reported in the literature, + correlation with delirium, – no correlation with delirium, ASAT aspartate aminotransferase, AZGP1 alpha-2 glycoprotein, BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CREB cyclic AMP response element-binding protein, CRP C-reactive protein, IL interleukin, ILGF-1 insulin-like growth factor-1, NLR neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio, NSE neuron-specific enolase, PI3K phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, SDNF striatal-derived neuronotrophic factor, SERPINA3 alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, TNF tumor necrosis factor