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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by acute kidney injury

From: Factors associated with acute kidney injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome

Characteristics No AKI (113) AKI (244) p Missing (%)
Age, mean (SD), years 50.2 (15.8) 54.3 (15.7) 0.02a 0 (0)
Male sex, n (%) 54 (47.8) 137 (56.1) 0.14 0 (0)
BMI, median (IQR), kg/m2 29.7 (24.6–35.5) 30.3 (25–38.2) 0.36 0 (0)
Race, n (%)     
 White 88 (77.9) 170 (69.7) 0.11 0 (0)
 Black or African-American 20 (17.7) 58 (23.8) 0.20 0 (0)
SOFA, mean (SD), points 9 (2.6) 11.9 (3.6) < 0.001a 9 (2.5)
Non-renal SOFA, mean (SD), points 8.9 (2.6) 10.7 (3) < 0.001a 9 (2.5)
APACHE III, mean (SD), points 95 (26) 115 (31) < 0.001a 15 (4.2)
Charlson comorbidities index, median (IQR), points 2 (0–4) 3 (1–5) 0.002a 0 (0)
Comorbidities, n (%)     
 Chronic lung diseases 44 (38.9) 74 (30.3) 0.11 0 (0)
 Diabetes 23 (20.4) 72 (29.5) 0.07 0 (0)
 Active malignancies 18 (15.9) 59 (24.2) 0.08 0 (0)
 Liver disease 5 (4.4) 28 (11.5) 0.03a 0 (0)
 Heart failure 5 (4.4) 22 (9) 0.13 0 (0)
 Recent surgery within 3 months 4 (3.5) 10 (4.1) 1.00 0 (0)
Cause of ARDS, n (%)     
 Pneumonia 91 (80.5) 204 (83.6) 0.48 0 (0)
 Aspiration 22 (19.5) 43 (17.6) 0.67 0 (0)
 Non-pulmonary sepsis 3 (2.7) 21 (8.6) 0.04a 0 (0)
 Pancreatitis 6 (5.3) 8 (3.3) 0.39 0 (0)
Echocardiographic findings     
 EF, median (IQR), % 60 (55–65) 60 (55–65) 0.21 46 (12.9)
 RVSP, median (IQR), mm Hg 38 (31–48) 40 (32–50) 0.33 123 (34.5)
 Septic shock 37 (32.7) 142 (58.2) < 0.001a 0 (0)
Nephrotoxic agents, n (%)     
 Antimicrobial agents 103 (91.2) 195 (84.4) 0.08 13 (3.6)
 Contrast agents 34 (30.1) 64 (26.3) 0.46 1 (0.3)
 ACEI 15 (13.3) 27 (11.1) 0.55 0 (0)
 Calcineurin inhibitors 5 (4.4) 10 (4.1) 1.00 0 (0)
 NSAIDs 4 (3.5) 4 (1.6) 0.27 0 (0)
 Number of nephrotoxic agents, median (IQR), count 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 0.75 13 (3.6)
Rescue therapies (%)     
 Continuous NMBA 37 (32.7) 99 (40.6) 0.16 0 (0)
 Inhaled vasodilators 21 (18.6) 64 (26.2) 0.11 0 (0)
 Prone positioning 13 (11.5) 34 (13.9) 0.53 0 (0)
 ECMO 5 (4.4) 7 (2.9) 0.53 0 (0)
 Recruitment maneuvers 4 (3.5) 20 (8.2) 0.10 0 (0)
 HFOV 2 (1.8) 11 (4.5) 0.24 0 (0)
Known baseline SCr, n (%) 57 (50.4) 145 (59.4) 0.11 0 (0)
Baseline SCr, mean (SD), mg/dL 0.79 (0.18) 0.82 (0.2) 0.44 156 (43.7)
eGFR, median (IQR), mL/min per 1.73 m2 98.2 (80.7–111.8) 95.7 (80.7–111.1) 0.83 156 (43.7)
Time from ARDS diagnosis to hospital admission (IQR), days 0 (− 3 to 1) 0 (− 2 to 2) 0.14 0 (0)
  1. ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, AKI acute kidney injury, APACHE acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BMI body mass index, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, EF ejection fraction, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HFOV high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, IQR interquartile range, NMBA neuromuscular blocking agents, NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, RVSP right ventricular systolic pressure, SCr serum creatinine, SD standard deviation, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment
  2. ap < 0.05
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