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Table 2 Characteristics of the patients during the ICU stay

From: Long-term neurocognitive outcome is not worsened by of the use of venovenous ECMO in severe ARDS patients

Characteristic Non-ECMO (n = 18) ECMO (n = 22) p Value
MV duration before ARDS, days 2 [0–5] 0.5 [0–5] 0.66
MV duration before ECMO, days 4 [1–9]  
Lung Injury Score at day 1 3 [2.5–3.1] 3 [2.8–3.4] 0.23
Lowest PaO2 at day 1, mmHg 69 [62–79] 73 [52–81] 0.93
Lactate level at day 1 (mmol/L) 2.3 [1.4–3.1] 2.2 [1.4–3.1] 0.99
Duration of hypoxemia (PaO2 < 50 mmHg), hours 2 [1–5] 6 [3–8] 0.026
Duration of hypoxemia (PaO2 < 65 mmHg), hours 10 [6–31] 31 [9–54] 0.09
Days of PEEP > 10 cm H2O 13 [8–17] 16 [14–30] 0.022
Adjunctive therapies
 Nitric oxide, n (%) 6 (33) 11 (50) 0.29
 Prone positioning, n (%) 17 (94) 17 (77) 0.20
Days receiving benzodiazepines 14 [11–18] 25 [21–34] < 0.001
Days receiving narcotics 14 [11–20] 26 [22–35] < 0.001
Days receiving neuromuscular blockade 7 [3–10] 11 [7–15] 0.022
Days receiving neuroleptics 4 [1–7] 4 [0–11] 0.90
Days receiving vasopressors 7 [3–16] 12 [8–16] 0.08
Delirium during ICU, n (%) 12 (67) 12 (55) 0.44
Renal replacement therapy, n (%) 5 (27.8) 6 (27.3) 0.99
Transfusion, n (%) 16 (89) 22 (100) 0.20
Any systemic glucocorticoid therapy, n (%) 12 (67) 17 (77) 0.46
 Septic shock, n (%) 5 (42) 9 (53) 0.55
 ARDS, n (%) 1 (8) 6 (35) 0.19
 Other, n (%) 6 (50) 5 (29) 0.26
No. VAP 0 [0–1] 1 [0–2] 0.6
No. episodes blood glucose < 3.5 mmol/L 0 [0–2] 0 [0–2] 0.93
Natremia < 135 mmol/L, days 3 [1–8] 1 [1–6] 0.33
Natremia > 146 mmol/L, days 4 [2–6] 5 [1–7] 0.78
Cumulative 7-days fluid balance, L 12.5 [7.3–16.4] 12.8 [9.31–22.2] 0.31
MRC neuromuscular score at discharge 42 [33–46] 39 [33–48] 0.70
Duration of ECMO support, days 12 [8–19]  
Duration of MV total, days 29 [21–46] 36 [28–64] 0.16
ICU LOS, days 35 [24–47] 46 [34–71] 0.08
Hospital LOS, days 55 [43–90] 61 [45–99] 0.77
Time to return back to home, days 93 [57–123] 120 [72–158] 0.13
  1. Data are provided as numbers (%) for categorical variables and as medians [25th–75th percentiles] for continuous variables
  2. MV Mechanical ventilation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, LOS length of stay, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, ICU intensive care unit, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, VAP ventilator-acquired pneumonia, MRC Medical Research Council