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Table 3 Complete blood count parameters, AKI incidence, and outcomes

From: Complete blood count in acute kidney injury prediction: a narrative review

Study Design Setting N AKI definition Incidence of AKI Mortality
Anemia
 Shema-Didi et al. [50] Retrospective Hospitalized 34,802 RIFLE OR 1.5 (1.4–1.6), p < 0.001 OR 6.3 (4.6–8.5), p < 0.001
 Karkouti et al. [56] Retrospective Post-cardiac surgery 1444 SCr ≥ 50% RR 2.6 (2.0–3.3)  
 Shacham et al. [51] Retrospective Post-acute myocardial infarction 1248 AKIN OR 1.76 (1.02–3.02), p = 0.04  
 Han et al. [53] Retrospective Critically ill 2145 KDIGO OR 1.76 (1.349–2.291), p < 0.001 OR 2.21 (1.835–2.662), p < 0.001
 Arai et al. [59] Prospective Post-transcatheter aortic valve implantation 3472 Valve Academic Research Consortium criteria OR 1.82 (1.45–2.29), p < 0.01 HR 1.5 (1.29–1.73), p < 0.01
 Powell-Tuck et al. [54] Retrospective Critically ill 210 AKIN OR 0.82 (0.65–1.03), p = 0.09  
 Abusaada et al. [52] Prospective Post-acute myocardial infarction 1107 AKIN OR 1.66 (1.07–2.54), p = 0.022  
 Choi et al. [61] Retrospective Post-total hip replacement arthroplasty 2467 AKIN OR 2.036 (1.369–3.028), p < 0.001  
 Malhotra et al. [55] Prospective Critically ill 573 KDIGO OR 1.477 (0.891–2.449), p = 0.13  
 Duque-Sosa et al. [57] Retrospective Post-cardiac surgery 966 KDIGO OR 1.32 (1.00–1.75), p = 0.05  
 Gorla et al. [60] Retrospective Post-thoracic endovascular aortic repair 144 AKIN OR 4.34 (1.91–9.85), p < 0.001 OR 1.67 (1.03–2.68), p = 0.036
 Oprea et al. [58] Retrospective Post-cardiac surgery 6130 KDIGO HR 1.15 (1.01 to 1.32), p = 0.04 HR 1.50 (1.25 to 1.79), p < 0.001
 Sreenivasan et al. [62] Retrospective Post-coronary angiography 2055 KDIGO OR 5.3 (3.8–7.3), p < 0.001  
White blood cell count
 Han et al. [63] Prospective Critically ill 2079 KDIGO Leucocytosis
OR 2.05 (1.39–3.031), p < 0.001
Leucopenia
OR 1.42 (1.002–1.996), p = 0.048
Leucocytosis
OR 1.36 (0.992–1.852), p = 0.056
Leucopenia
OR 1.40 (1.025–1.912), p = 0.035
Delta-neutrophil index
 Kim et al. [64] Retrospective Sepsis-associated AKI 346 AKIN OR 1.060, p  <  0.001 HR 25.2, p <  0.001
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio
 Kim et al. [65] Retrospective Post-cardiovascular surgery 590 KDIGO NLR > 4.5
OR 3.26 (1.51–7.06), p = 0.003
HR 1.02 (1.01–1.04), p = 0.006
 Yilmaz et al. [69] Retrospective Septic patients 118 AKIN OR 3.25 (2.72–4.19), p < 0.001  
 Yuan et al. [68] Retrospective Post-coronary angiography 1162 SCr ≥ 0.5 within 3 days OR 1.105 (1.044–1.169), p = 0.001  
 Alfeilat et al. [72] Prospective Emergency department 294 AKIN/KDIGO NLR > 5.5
OR 6.4 (2.7–16), p = 0.031
 
 Gameiro et al. [73] Retrospective Cirrhotic patients 186 SCr ≥ 0.3 in 48 h or SCr ≥ 50% OR 1.1 (1.0–1.1), p = 0.028; NLR > 6
OR 2.4 (1.0–5.8), p = 0.041
 
 Parlar et al. [66] Retrospective Post-cardiac surgery 311 KDIGO OR 0.45 (0.22–0.95), p = 0.04  
 Bu et al. [70] Retrospective Septic patients 132 KDIGO OR 1.047 (1.005–1.091), p = 0.026  
 Kim et al. [67] Retrospective Burn-injured patients 473 KDIGO OR 1.094 (1.064–1.125), p < 0.001  
 Younan et al. [74] Retrospective Critically ill trauma 207 KDIGO OR 2.06 (1.04–4.06), p = 0.04  
 Fan et al. [75] Retrospective Critically ill AKI patients 13,678 KDIGO   NLR > 12.14
HR 1.83 (1.66–2.02), p < 0.0001
Mean platelet volume
 Han et al. [76] Retrospective Critically ill AKI–CRRT patients 349 Clinical evaluation   HR 1.08 (1.010–1.155), p = 0.023
Mean platelet ratio
 Li et al. [78] Retrospective Critically ill AKI–CRRT patients 223 KDIGO   AUROC 0.636 (0.563–0.708), p < 0.001
Thrombocytopenia
 Van Linden et al. [81] Retrospective Post-trans-apical aortic valve implantation 270 RIFLE OR 4.4 (1.6–12.2), p = 0.005  
 Fan et al. [83] Retrospective Heat stroke patients 176 Clinical evaluation OR 37.92 (2.18–87.21), p < 0.01  
 Kertai et al. [82] Retrospective Post-cardiac surgery 4217 KDIGO OR 1.14 (1.09–1.20), p < 0.0001 HR 5.46 (3.79–7.89), p < 0.0001
 Chao et al. [84] Prospective Emergency department, elderly 136 KDIGO HR 1.85 (1.05–3.28), p = 0.03  
 Wu et al. [85] Retrospective Hemorrhagic shock patients 84 KDIGO OR 0.71 (0.54–0.93), p < 0.05 HR 0.89 (0.76–0.99), p < 0.05
Neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet ratio
 Gameiro et al. [87] Retrospective Post-abdominal surgery 450 KDIGO OR 1.05 (1.00–1.10), p = 0.048  
 Koo et al. [86] Retrospective Post-cardiac surgery 1099 KDIGO OR 1.19 (1.04–1.36), p = 0.0124; NLPR  64
OR 2.18 (1.20–3.98), p = 0.011
NLPR > 3
HR 3.54 (2.00–6.28), p < 0.001
Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio
 Hudzik et al. [89] Retrospective Post-acute myocardial infarction, diabetic patients 719 KDIGO OR 1.22 (1.10–1.34), p < 0.0001  
 Zheng et al. [91] Retrospective Critically ill AKI patients 10,859 KDIGO   PLR < 90
HR 1.25 (1.12–1.39), p < 0.001
PLR > 311
HR 1.19 (1.08–1.31), p < 0.001
 Sun et al. [90] Retrospective Post-acute myocardial infarction, coronary angiography 5719 SCr > 25% or > 0.5 mg/dl
within 72 h of contrast
exposure
OR 1.432 (1.205–1.816,) p = 0.031  
 Parlar et al. [66] Retrospective Post-cardiac surgery 311 KDIGO OR 1.06 (1.01–1.10), p = 0.01  
  1. AKIN Acute Kidney Injury Network; AKI Acute kidney injury; AUROC Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristics; GFR glomerular filtration rate; HR Hazard Ratio; KDIGO Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes; NLR neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; NLPR neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet ratio; OR odds ratio; PLR platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio; RIFLE Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease; RR relative risk; SCr serum creatinine