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Table 3 Main causes of hyperlactatemia suggested by the experts (EXPERT OPINION)

From: Diagnosis and management of metabolic acidosis: guidelines from a French expert panel

Type A
 Severe anemia
 Septic, hemorrhagic, cardiogenic shock
 CO poisoning
 Organ ischemia
 Intense physical exercise
Type B
 Sub-type B1—Underlying primary diseases
  Cancer and hemopathy
  Decompensated diabetes
  HIV infection
  Liver failure
  Severe malaria attack
 Sub-type B2—Medication and toxins
  Beta-adrenergic agents
  Cyanide and cyanogenic compounds
  Diethyl ether
  Fluorouracil (5-FU)
  Nalidixic acid
  Niacin (vitamin B3 or nicotinic acid)
  Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  Psychostimulants: cocaine, amphetamines, cathinones
  Sugars: fructose, sorbitol, xylitol
  Total parenteral nutrition
  Valproic acid
  Vitamin deficiency: thiamine (vitamin B1) and biotin (vitamin B8)
 Sub-type B3—Inborn errors of metabolism
  Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency
  Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (von Gierke disease)
  Kearns–Sayre syndrome
  MELAS syndrome
  MERRF syndrome
  Methylmalonic acidemia (methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency)
  Pearson syndrome
  Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency
  Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency