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Table 4 Predictive power of NIV failure identified by HACOR score at 1–2 h of NIV

From: Early prediction of noninvasive ventilation failure in COPD patients: derivation, internal validation, and external validation of a simple risk score

 Cutoff pointAUC (95% CI)SE (%)SP (%)PPV (%)NPV (%)LR+LR−
Derivation cohort
 Prediction of NIV failure> 50.90 (0.87–0.92)70.292.668.893.19.500.32
 Prediction of early NIV failure> 50.91 (0.88–0.93)81.389.954.297.08.050.21
Internal-validation cohort
 Prediction of NIV failure> 50.89 (0.85–0.92)77.193.573.494.611.90.25
 Prediction of early NIV failure> 50.96 (0.94–0.98)93.988.648.499.28.260.07
External-validation cohort
 Prediction of NIV failure> 50.71 (0.67–0.76)62.975.820.295.52.600.49
 Prediction of early NIV failure> 50.83 (0.79–0.87)77.874.812.898.63.090.30
  1. HACOR heart rate, acidosis, consciousness, oxygenation and respiratory rate, NIV noninvasive ventilation, AUC area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics, CI confidence interval, SE sensitivity, SP specificity, PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value, LR+ positive likelihood ratio, LR− negative likelihood ratio