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Table 5 Early versus late intubation in patients with HACOR score > 5 at 1–2 h of NIV

From: Early prediction of noninvasive ventilation failure in COPD patients: derivation, internal validation, and external validation of a simple risk score

 Early intubation
N = 92
Late intubation
N = 29
p
Age, years72.5 ± 9.876.0 ± 9.10.09
Male73 (79.3%)22 (75.9%)0.80
APACHE II score21.4 ± 5.422.3 ± 5.90.45
Underlying disease
 Diabetes mellitus16 (17.4%)4 (13.8%)0.78
 Hypertension34 (37.0%)13 (44.8%)0.51
 Chronic heart disease23 (25.0%)8 (27.6%)0.81
 Chronic kidney disease10 (10.9%)4 (13.8%)0.74
 Chronic liver disease10 (10.9%)3 (10.3%)> 0.99
Data collected before NIV
 Respiratory rate, breaths/min30 ± 728 ± 70.20
 Heart rate, beats/min121 ± 25117 ± 260.39
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg139 ± 31135 ± 320.55
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg80 ± 1878 ± 180.60
 pH7.22 ± 0.087.23 ± 0.080.66
 PaCO2, mmHg85 ± 2382 ± 190.55
 PaO2/FiO2, mmHg192 ± 107178 ± 770.50
 GCS12.6 ± 3.213.1 ± 2.80.47
Data collected at 1–2 h of NIV
 Respiratory rate, breaths/min28 ± 726 ± 70.15
 Heart rate, beats/min117 ± 26109 ± 240.11
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg132 ± 34125 ± 180.25
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg78 ± 1974 ± 130.30
 Minute ventilation, L/min8.9 ± 4.19.8 ± 4.70.33
 IPAP, cmH2O17 ± 417 ± 50.89
 EPAP, cmH2O5 ± 26 ± 10.50
 pH7.21 ± 0.117.27 ± 0.09< 0.01*
 PaCO2, mmHg90 ± 2876 ± 200.02*
 PaO2/FiO2, mmHg164 ± 88169 ± 640.79
 GCS11.5 ± 3.413.2 ± 2.00.01*
HACOR score before NIV9.4 ± 3.78.9 ± 4.00.54
HACOR score at 1–2 h of NIV13.9 ± 5.69.3 ± 3.4< 0.01*
ICU mortality33 (35.9%)23 (79.3%)< 0.01*
Hospital mortality33 (35.9%)23 (79.3%)< 0.01*
  1. HACOR heart rate, acidosis, consciousness, oxygenation and respiratory rate, GCS Glasgow coma scale, NIV noninvasive ventilation, IPAP inspiratory positive airway pressure, EPAP expiratory positive airway pressure, ICU intensive care unit
  2. *p < 0.05 between two groups