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Table 1 Baseline patient demographic and clinical characteristics (n = 12)

From: Effects of high-flow nasal cannula and non-invasive ventilation on inspiratory effort in hypercapnic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a preliminary study

Variables N = 12
Age, years 74.0 ± 11.0
Male gender, n (%) 9 (75%)
Body mass index, kg/m2 22 ± 3
Long-term oxygen therapy, n (%) 3 (25%)
Comorbidity, n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus 2 (17%)
 Hypertension 8 (67%)
 Coronary artery disease 3 (25%)
 Chronic kidney disease 4 (33%)
 Others 2 (17%)
Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC, % 45 [35–55]
Post-bronchodilator FEV1, % predicted 34 [31–47]
APACHE II at enrollment 12 ± 4
Arterial blood gas at enrollment
 pH 7.36 [7.28–7.37]
 PaCO2, mmHg 51 [42–60]
 PaO2, mmHg 139 [80–233]
Time from initiation of NIV to enrollment, hours 17 [5–68]
Non-invasive ventilation setting at enrollment
 Inspiratory positive airway pressure, cmH2O 11 [10–12]
 Expiratory positive airway pressure, cmH2O 5 [5]
 Tidal volume, mL 425 [370–514]
 Oxygen flow rate, liters per minute 4 [3–5]
  1. Continuous variables were presented as mean ± SD or median [interquartile range] and categorical variables were presented as absolute value (%)
  2. APACHE acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation, FEV1 forced expiratory volume at 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity, PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, PaO2 arterial partial pressure of oxygen