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Table 2 Simplified esophageal pressure–time product, respiratory variables, and hemodynamic variables during non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal cannula at different flow rates

From: Effects of high-flow nasal cannula and non-invasive ventilation on inspiratory effort in hypercapnic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a preliminary study

Variables NIV HFNC-10 HFNC-20 HFNC-30 HFNC-40 HFNC-50 p
sPTPes per breath (cmH2O × s) 9 ± 4 11 ± 5 11 ± 6 10 ± 6 10 ± 5 10 ± 4 0.090
sPTPes per minute (cmH2O × s × min−1) 183 ± 84 220 ± 100 211 ± 90 187 ± 84*,** 189 ± 87 201 ± 86 < 0.001
RR (breaths/min) 25 [20–28] 24 [20–29] 23 [18–28] 21 [18–27]* 21 [18–27]* 21 [18–26]* 0.003
SpO2 (%) 96 ± 2 95 ± 3 96 ± 3* 97 ± 3*,** 97 ± 2*,** 98 ± 2*,**, γ 0.028
PtcCO2 (mmHg) 42 ± 7 41 ± 7 41 ± 8 41 ± 7 41 ± 7 41 ± 7 0.335
MAP (mmHg) 99 ± 22 94 ± 15 92 ± 9 91 ± 12 89 ± 12 91 ± 14 0.179
HR (beats/min) 96 ± 16 97 ± 15 94 ± 13 93 ± 14 94 ± 16 95 ± 17 0.174
Oxygen flow (L/min) or Set FiO2 4 [3–5] 0.35 [0.30–0.40] 0.35 [0.30–0.40] 0.35 [0.30–0.40] 0.35 [0.30–0.40] 0.35 [0.30–0.40]
  1. Continuous variables were presented as mean ± SD or median [interquartile range] and categorical variables were presented as absolute value (%)
  2. HFNC high-flow nasal cannula, HR heart rate, MAP mean arterial pressure, NIV non-invasive ventilation, sPTPes, simplified esophageal pressure–time product, PtcCO2, transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure, RR respiratory rate, SpO2, oxygen saturation
  3. * Indicates p < 0.05 compared with HNFC-10, ** Indicates p < 0.05 compared with HFNC-20, γIndicates p < 0.05 compared with NIV