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Table 2 Comparison of patients with severe and non-severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

From: Outcome and prognostic factors of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in immunocompromised adults: a prospective observational study

  Severe PJP
(n = 53)
Non-severe PJP (n = 54) p value
Age, years, mean ± SD 59.23 ± 18 51.97 ± 18 0.019
Males, n (%) 34 (64) 31 (57) 0.554
BMI, kg/m2, mean ± SD 23.55 ± 8 22.45 ± 8 0.254
Serum albumin, g/L, mean ± SD 25.08 ± 12 28.85 ± 12 < 0.001
Chronic underlying disease, n (%)
 Chronic pulmonary disease 17 (32.08) 16 (29.63) 0.836
 Chronic kidney disease 10 (18.87) 14 (25.93) 0.423
 Chronic heart failure 6 (11.32) 3 (5.56) 0.320
ICU admission, n (%) 48 (90.57) 3 (5.56) < 0.0001
PaO2/FiO2 on admission, mean ± SD 111.38 ± 54 269.66 ± 112 < 0.0001
SAPS2, mean ± SD 38.37± 28.19± < 0.0001
SOFA score on day 1, mean ± SD 5 ± 3.1 1 ± 1.5 < 0.0001
Cause of immunodeficiency, n (%)a
 Haematological malignancy 21 (39.6) 16 (29.6) 0.314
 Solid organ transplant 13 (24.53) 14 (25.93) 1
 HIV infection 6 (11.1) 15 (28.3) 0.050
 Systemic disease 9 (16.98) 4 (7.41) 0.150
 Solid malignancy 6 (11.32) 6 (11.11) 1
 Primary immunodeficiency 3 (5.66) 5 (9.26) 0.477
 Ongoing immunosuppressive therapy, n (%) 45 (84.91) 38 (70.37) 0.104
 Ongoing glucocorticoid therapy, n (%) 30 (56.6) 21 (38.89) 0.083
 Prednisolone-equivalent dosage, mg/day, mean ± SD 20.2 ± 30.26 14.69 ± 30.42 0.102
PJP prophylaxis, n (%) 9 (17) 12 (22) 0.495
Time from symptom onset to admission, days, mean ± SD 10.85 ± 20.38 15.2 ± 20.53 0.327
Time from symptom onset to initiation of effective therapy, days, mean ± SD 13.89 ± 21.9 18.04 ± 17.1 0.28
Laboratory findings, mean ± SD
 White blood cells/mm3 17.76 ± 36 7.29 ± 8.15 < 0.001
 Neutrophils/mm3 10.07 ± 18 4.77 ± 4.34 0.001
 Lymphocytes/mm3 2262.48 ± 8766 1809.4 ± 7017 0.766
 CRP, mg/L 148.75 ± 105 74.04 ± 70.65 < 0.001
 LDH, µKat/L 9.79 ± 7 5.93 ± 3.9 0.012
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), time from symptom onset, days, mean ± SD 2.23 ± 4.69 3.27 ± 3.72 0.229
 PJ visible in smears, n (%) 31 (58.49) 18 (33.33) 0.011
 Neutrophils, %, mean ± SD 30.09 14.46 < 0.001
 Macrophages, %, mean ± SD 43.76 49.7 0.349
 Lymphocytes, %, mean ± SD 31.22 34.24 0.383
 Alveolitis profile, n (%) 9 (16.98) 22 (40.74) 0.007
Co-infection at PJP diagnosis
 Viral infection, n (%) 26 (49.06) 19 (35.19) 0.173
 Bacterial infection, n (%) 9 (16.98) 11 (20.37) 0.805
 Invasive fungal infection, n (%) 2 (3.77) 3 (5.56) 1
Respiratory support
 Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 30 (56.60) 0 < 0.0001
 Non-invasive ventilation, n (%) 2 (3.77) 0 1
90-day mortality, n (%) 24 (45) 5 (9) < 0.0001
  1. BMI, body mass index; ICU, intensive care unit; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; SAPS2, simplified acute physiology score version 2; SOFA score, sequential organ failure assessment score; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; PJP, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia; CPR, C-reactive protein; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; PJ, Pneumocystis jirovecii
  2. aThe total exceeds 100% because some patients had more than one cause of immunodeficiency. Significant values are shown in italicface