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Table 2 Changes in sublingual microcirculation and NIRS-derived parameters

From: IgM-enriched immunoglobulins (Pentaglobin) may improve the microcirculation in sepsis: a pilot randomized trial

 Baseline24 h72 hp (time)ap (interaction)b
PVDs (mm/mm2)0.869< 0.001
 Pentaglobin (n = 10)21.7 ± 4.723.4 ± 6.025.5 ± 5.1*  
 Placebo (n = 9)25.0 ± 5.823.8 ± 4.420.7 ± 4.1**  
MFIs (AU)
 Pentaglobin (n = 10)2.68 [2.38–2.78]2.93 [2.82–3.00]**2.82 [2.65–2.95]0.002 
 Placebo (n = 9)2.83 [2.60–2.97]2.93 [2.62–2.93]2.67 [2.48–2.73]*0.016 
TVDs (mm/mm2)
 Pentaglobin (n = 10)25.5 [17.9–27.1]24.9 [18.7–27.6]27.0 [19.3–29.6]0.436 
 Placebo (n = 9)26.6 [21.1–30.3]25.2 [20.5–28.1]22.5 [17.8–26.6]0.154 
De Backer score (n/mm)0.8870.144
 Pentaglobin (n = 10)13.1 ± 2.213.3 ± 3.414.2 ± 2.7  
 Placebo (n = 9)13.9 ± 2.813.2 ± 2.412.8 ± 2.7  
PPVs (%)
 Pentaglobin (n = 10)96 [87–98]99 [98–100]98 [97–100]0.050 
 Placebo (n = 9)98 [96–99]98 [97–99]96 [94–98]#0.154 
FHI (AU)
 Pentaglobin (n = 10)0.31 [0.16–0.45]0.03 [0–0.13]0.07 [0–0.18]0.032 
 Placebo (n = 9)0.18 [0.03–0.30]0.07 [0.07–0.18]0.11 [0.03–0.26]0.495 
StO2 (%)
 Pentaglobin (n = 10)80 [79–84]84 [79–89]84 [77–88]0.316 
 Placebo (n = 9)85 [72–86]81 [78–84]84 [75–87]0.658 
StO2 downslope (%/min)
 Pentaglobin (n = 10)− 8.4 [− 10.8, − 6.1]− 10.9 [− 11.9, − 8.2]− 11.5 [− 16.3, − 9.1]0.367 
 Placebo (n = 9)− 8.0 [− 14.2, − 5.7]− 6.6 [− 13.9, − 6.1]− 10.2 [− 12.3, − 6.7]0.813 
StO2 upslope (%/min)0.0050.681
 Pentaglobin (n = 10)157 ± 37224 ± 82**207 ± 77  
 Placebo (n = 9)120 ± 57162 ± 68146 ± 73  
Area of hyperemia (%*min)0.0020.544
 Pentaglobin (n = 10)16.7 ± 10.512.7 ± 8.310.3 ± 5.9*  
 Placebo (n = 9)15.3 ± 10.313.9 ± 7.47.1 ± 6.8*  
THI (AU)
 Pentaglobin (n = 10)12 [9–15]11 [8–12]10 [8–14]0.601 
 Placebo (n = 9)11 [7–13]10 [7–13]8 [7–12]0.654 
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median [1st–3rd quartile], as appropriate
  2. NIRS near-infrared spectroscopy, PVD perfused vessel density, MFI microvascular flow index, TVD total vessel density, PPV percentage of perfused vessels, FHI flow heterogeneity index, StO2 tissue oxygen saturation, THI tissue haemoglobin index, AU arbitrary units
  3. aTwo-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (testing the effect of time) or Friedman test, as appropriate
  4. bTwo-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (testing for the interaction between time and treatment), when applicable
  5. p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 versus baseline, Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with Sidack’s post hoc test or Friedman test with Dunn’s post hoc test for multiple comparisons, as appropriate
  6. #p < 0.05 versus Pentaglobin group, Mann–Whitney U test