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Table 3 Diagnostic ability of the changes in haemodynamic variables to diagnose a fluid-induced increase in cardiac output ≥ 15%

From: How to detect a positive response to a fluid bolus when cardiac output is not measured?

 r vs. changes in COp value for the correlationSensitivitySpecificityPositive PVNegative PVPositive LRNegative LRBest thresholdAUROCp value for AUROC vs. 0.50n
Decrease in HR (in %)0.0649 (43–55)57 (50–64)59 (54–63)47 (43–54)1.1 (0.9–1.4)0.9 (0.8–1.1)< − 2%0.529 ± 0.026*0.27479
Increase in SAP (in %)0.38< 0.000165 (58–70)66 (66–73)71 (66–75)60 (55–64)1.9 (1.6–2.4)0.5 (0.4–0.6)> 9%0.697 ± 0.024< 0.001482
Increase in MAP (in %)0.33< 0.000158 (52–64)70 (63–76)71 (66–75)57 (53–61)1.9 (1.5–2.4)0.6 (0.5–0.7)> 8%0.654 ± 0.026*< 0.001484
Increase in DAP (in %)0.8453 (46–60)52 (45–59)54 (49–58)51 (46–56)1.1 (0.9–1.3)0.9 (0.7–1.1)> 31%0.509 ± 0.029*0.77410
Decrease in shock index (in %)− 0.35< 0.000166 (60–72)64 (57–70)70 (66–74)60 (55–64)2.0 (1.6–2.4)0.5 (0.4–0.6)< − 9%0.688 ± 0.024< 0.001479
Increase in PP/HR ratio (in %)0.33< 0.000152 (46–58)79 (72–83)76 (70–80)56 (52–59)2.4 (1.8–3.2)0.6 (0.5–0.7)> 41%0.668 ± 0.024< 0.001479
Increase in PP (in %)0.38< 0.000172 (66–77)64 (57–70)71 (67–75)65 (60–70)1.8 (1.5–2.2)0.4 (0.4–0.5)> 10%0.719 ± 0.023< 0.001478
Decrease in PPV (in abs val) (all)− 0.24*< 0.000164 (57–71)63 (54–70)70 (64–74)57 (52–63)1.7 (1.4–2.2)6.0 (0.5–0.7)< − 2 points0.663 ± 0.028*< 0.001357
Decrease in PPV (in abs val) (without arrhythmia, spontaneous breathing, and ARDS)− 0.24*< 0.000148 (28–69)100 (73–100)100 (75–100)48 (39–57)1.0 (1.0–1.0)< − 7 points0.750 ± 0.080< 0.00137
Decrease in PPV (in abs val) (without arrhythmia and spontaneous breathing)0.56< 0.000133 (23–44)86 (77–93)74 (59–84)54 (50–58)2.5 (1.3–4.9)0.8 (0.6–0.9)< − 8 points0.532 ± 0.0450.48160
  1. AUROC area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, CO cardiac output, DAP diastolic arterial pressure, HR heart rate, LR likelihood ratio, MAP mean arterial pressure, n number of patients included in the analysis after exclusion of outliers, PP pulse pressure, PPV pulse pressure variation, PV predictive value, SAP systolic arterial pressure, Vt tidal volume
  2. * p < 0.05 vs. results obtained for changes in PP (in %). Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or mean (95% confidence interval)