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Table 2 Univariable logistic regression analyzing risk factor for colonization due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

From: Gastrointestinal colonization with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: effect on the risk of subsequent infections and impact on patient outcome

Clinical characteristicsColonized (n = 19)Non-colonized (n = 72)pOdds ratioa (95% CI)
Year
 20104 (21%)9 (13%)0.597 
 20111 (5%)13 (18%)  
 20123 (16%)10 (14%)  
 20132 (11%)13 (18%)  
 20144 (21%)15 (21%)  
 20155 (26%)12 (17%)  
Age (years)52 (39–64)46 (34–55)0.0751.03 (0.99–1.07)
Gender (male)16 (84%)41 (57%)0.0294.03 (1.08–15.0)
Charlson Comorbidity Index2 (1–4)1 (0–3)0.4081.08 (0.88–1.31)
Transferred from peripheral hospital15 (79%)60 (83%)0.6550.75 (0.21–2.65)
IMV > 3 days prior to ECMO connection11 (58%)20 (28%)0.0143.57 (1.25–10.2)
RRT prior to ECMO connection4 (21%)11 (15%)0.5461.48 (0.41–5.29)
SOFA score8 (6–11)8 (6–11)0.6570.97 (0.84–1.10)
SAPS II39 (32–53)36 (32–46)0.4691.01 (0.97–1.05)
ARDS18 (95%)54 (75%)0.0596.00 (0.74–48.2)
PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg16 (84%)54 (75%)0.3971.77 (0.46–6.81)
Infection at admission15 (79%)49 (68%)0.3551.76 (0.52–5.89)
Chronic immunosuppressionb4 (21%)16 (22%)0.9120.93 (0.27–3.20)
Veno-venous support16 (84%)63 (88%)0.7060.76 (0.18–3.14)
Exposure to piperacillin/tazobactam8 (42%)40 (56%)0.2960.58 (0.21–1.62)
Exposure to carbapenems10 (53%)39 (54%)0.9050.94 (0.34–2.58)
  1. Data are presented as absolute frequency (% of the included patients) or as median and interquartile range
  2. IMV invasive mechanical ventilation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, RRT renal replacement therapy, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, SAPS II simplified acute physiology score, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
  3. aOdds ratio of continuous variables are odds ratio per unit increase in variable
  4. bIncluding high-dosage corticosteroids, immunosuppressants or both. Statistically significant results are highlighted in italic