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Table 1 Patient’s demographic data and outcome according intubation during the ICU stay

From: Use, timing and factors associated with tracheal intubation in septic shock: a prospective multicentric observational study

 Patients intubated early H0–H8 (n = 209)Patients intubated late H8–H72 (n = 114)Patients never intubated (n = 536)P value
Age, years66.5 ± 13.964.6 ± 13.564.9 ± 14.60.30
Sex, female82 (39.4%)35 (30.7%)196 (36.6%)0.30
Weight, kg77.1 ± 18.776.7 ± 18.875.9 ± 19.90.32
Chronic heart failure, NYHA > 215 (7.2%)11 (9.7%)55 (10.3%)0.43
Chronic respiratory failure33 (15.8%)16 (14.2%)84 (15.7%)0.93
 Home oxygen therapy4 (1.9%)3 (2.6%)6 (1.1%)0.33
 Home non-invasive or invasive ventilation therapy2 (1%)4 (3.5%)7 (1.3%)0.18
 Chronic renal failure32 (15.3%)15 (13.2%)88 (16.5%)0.72
 Dialysis10 (4.8%)2 (1.8%)29 (5.4%)0.28
 Cirrhosis24 (11.5%)6 (5.3%)36 (6.7%)0.07
 Immunosuppression51 (24.4%)40 (35.4%)161 (30.3%)0.12
 Chemotherapy26 (12.4%)30 (36.3%)80 (14.9%)0.02
 Corticosteroid therapy > 20 mg/j12 (5.7%)10 (8.8%)41 (7.6%)0.98
 Organ transplant or bone marrow transplant11 (5.3%)5 (4.4%)36 (6.7%)0.37
 Human immunodeficiency virus6 (2.7%)0 (0.00%)13 (2.4%)0.07
 Other immunosuppressive therapy11 (5.3%)8 (7%)46 (8.6%)0.44
 Neutropenia < 500/mm318 (13.4%)13 (11.4%)37 (6.8%)0.13
Infection site
 Heart5 (2.4%)5 (4.6%)10 (2%)0.27
 Skin26 (12.4%)12 (11%)55 (10.8%)0.69
 Digestive62 (29.7%)48 (43.2%)136 (26.8%)0.01
 Gynecological3 (1.4%)0 (0.00%)1 (0.2%)0.09
 Material10 (7.8%)7 (6.5%)32 (6.4%)0.83
 Neurological0 (0.00%)1 (0.9%)1 (0.2%)0.31
 Upper respiratory tract4 (1.9%)2 (1.9%)7 (1.4%)0.65
 Bone2 (1%)1 (0.9%)5 (1%)0.99
 Lung59 (28.2%)29 (26.9%)124 (24.2%)0.37
 Blood55 (27.6%)35 (31.8%)129 (25.5%)0.37
 Urinary37 (18.6%)9 (8.3%)144 (28.1%)< 0.001
 Others8 (4%)2 (1.9%)14 (2.8%)0.73
Pathogens
 Gram-positive cocci61 (31.1%)35 (32.4%)122 (24%)0.06
 Gram-negative bacilli104 (49.8%)53 (48.6%)243 (47.3%)0.52
 Fungus, parasite9 (4.6%)3 (2.8%)6 (1.2%)0.02
 Others9 (4.6%)5 (4.7%)20 (4%)0.84
 Non-identified46 (23.6%)29 (26.9%)162 (31.6%)0.1
Infection type
 Nosocomial infection147 (71%)64 (56.6%)329 (61.6%)0.08
 Community-acquired infection20 (9.7%)17 (15%)75 (14%)
 Healthcare associated infection40 (19.3%)32 (28.3%)130 (24.3%)
Acute physiological parameters and treatment
 pHa7.26 ± 0.157.33 ± 0.17.38 ± 0.1< 0.001
 PaO2, mmHga103.8 ± 54.287.9 ± 29.093.8 ± 30.10.16
 PaCO2, mmHga36.5 ± 14.532.2 ± 8.832.3 ± 8.80.02
 SpO2, %a93.6 ± 5.992.3 ± 6.495.2 ± 3.30.03
 Lactatesa5.4 ± 4.03.5 ± 2.32.9 ± 2.3< 0.001
 Respiratory ratea28.9 ± 7.928.6 ± 6.625.7 ± 6.7< 0.001
 Inability to clear tracheal secretionsa48 (23.7%)13 (11.6%)40 (7.6%)< 0.001
 Use of accessory respiratory musclea101 (49.8%)22 (19.8%)52 (9.9%)< 0.001
 Standard nasal oxygenb70 (35.7%)53 (49.1%)273 (52.8%)< 0.001
 High concentration mask oxygenb76 (39.2%)17 (15.6%)55 (10.9%)< 0.001
 High-flow nasal therapyb22 (11.4%)21 (19.6%)41 (8.1%)< 0.01
 Non-invasive ventilation therapyb20 (10.4%)8 (7.6%)26 (5.2%)0.04
 PaO2/FiO2 ratioa182 (88–295)192 (127–313)295 (208–395)< 0.001
 Glasgow coma scorea12.4 ± 3.914.5 ± 1.514.7 ± 0.9< 0.001
 Vasopressor dosea, µg/kg/min0.74 ± 0.660.50 ± 0.460.35 ± 0.37< 0.001
 Cumulative fluid from first hypotension to H02218.8 ± 1243.21958.6 ± 1137.52179.8 ± 1327.10.25
 SAPS II score at 24 h67.9 ± 22.058.8 ± 18.846.9 ± 13.8< 0.001
  1. Data are n (%) or mean ± SD
  2. aWorst value recorded between H0 and H8, or between H0 and immediately before intubation if intubation performed before H8
  3. bAt H0