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Table 3 Comparison of the 74 mucormycosis according to the surgical status

From: Mucormycosis in intensive care unit: surgery is a major prognostic factor in patients with hematological malignancy

 Study population (n = 74)Surgery (n = 27)No surgery (n = 47)P-value
Age, years, mean (SD)a50.6 (16.6)49.2 (19.6)51.5 (14.8)0.60
Sex-ratio (H/F)1.961.12.920.08
Underlying disease
 Hematological malignancies, n (%)41 (55.4)12 (44.4)29 (61.7)0.23
 Acute myeloid leukemia, n (%)15 (20.3)5 (18.5)10 (21.3)1
 Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, n (%)10 (13.5)3 (11.1)7 (14.9)0.74
 Lymphoma, n (%)8 (10.8)3 (11.1)5 (10.6)1
 Multiple myeloma, n (%)2 (2.7)02 (4.3)0.53
 Myelodysplastic syndrome, n (%)2 (2.7)02 (4.3)0.53
 Other, n (%)4 (5.4)1 (3.7)3 (6.4)1
 Allogenic HSCT, n (%)16 (21.6)3 (11.1)13 (27.7)0.14
 Autologous HSCT, n (%)7 (9.5)1 (3.7)6 (12.8)0.41
 Solid malignancies, n (%)4 (5.4)1 (3.7)3 (6.4)1
 SOT, n (%)9 (12.2)4 (14.8)5 (10.6)0.72
 Inflammatory disease, n (%)2 (2.7)1 (3.7)1 (2.1)1
 Systemic steroids, n (%)30 (40.5)8 (29.6)22 (46.8)0.15
 Diabetes, n (%)11 (14.9)1 (3.7)10 (21.3)0.05
Other condition, n (%)    
 Chronic alcoholism, n (%)8 (10.8)3 (11.1)5 (10.6)1
 Malnutrition, n (%)24 (32.4)10 (37.0)14 (29.8)0.70
 Drug addiction, n (%)1 (1.4)01 (2.1)1
 Chronic renal failure, n (%)7 (9.5)3 (11.1)4 (8.5)1
 Respiratory disease, n (%)15 (20.3)2 (7.4)13 (27.7)0.13
 Cirrhosis, n (%)1 (1.4)01 (2.1)1
 Trauma, n (%)7 (9.5)2 (7.4)5 (10.6)1
 Burn, n (%)3 (4.1)2 (7.4)1 (2.1)0.55
Previous antifungal therapy, n (%)30 (40.5)7 (25.9)23 (48.9)0.09
Site of infection
 Lungs, n (%)29 (39.2)5 (18.5)24 (51.1)0.01
 Skin, n (%)15 (20.3)8 (29.6)7 (14.9)0.22
 Sinus and ENT infection, n (%)1 (1.35)1 (1.4)00.36
 Abdomen, n (%)1 (1.35)1 (1.4)00.36
 Bones, n (%)1 (1.35)01 (2.1)1
 Infection of contiguous sites, n (%)13 (17.6)7 (25.9)6 (12.8)0.26
 Disseminated infection, n (%)14 (18.9)4 (14.8)10 (21.3)0.55
Isolated fungi0.02
 Rhizopus genus, n (%)22 (29.7)7 (25.9)15 (31.9) 
 Mucor genus, n (%)10 (13.5)2 (7.4)8 (17.0) 
 Rhizomucor genus, n (%)14 (18.9)4 (14.8)10 (21.3) 
 Lichtheimia genus, n (%)19 (25.7)7 (25.9)12 (25.5) 
 Cunninghamella genus, n (%)1 (1.4)01 (2.1) 
 Unclassified mucorales, n (%)9 (12.2)8 (29.6)1 (2.1) 
Year of admission   0.53
Severity of infection
 SAPS2, mean (SD)a52 (22)44.6 (17.5)56.6 (22.5)0.01
 SOFA, mean (SD)a9 (4)7.0 (3.3)9.9 (3.7)0.001
 Respiratory2.0 (1.2)1.5 (1.3)2.2 (1.1)0.01
 Cardiovascular1.7 (1.8)1.4 (1.6)1.9 (1.8)0.18
 Renal1.1 (1.2)1.2 (1.2)1.1 (1.2)0.63
 Hematological2.0 (1.4)1.4 (1.2)2.3 (1.5)0.006
 Neurological1.2 (1.5)0.8 (1.3)1.4 (1.6)0.08
 Liver0.8 (0.9)0.6 (0.8)0.9 (0.9)0.17
Biological abnormalities
 TP < 50%, n (%)13 (17.6)2 (7.41)11 (23.4)0.12
 Thrombocytes < 50G/L, n (%)27 (36.5)5 (18.5)22 (46.8)0.02
 Leucocytes < 1G/L, n (%)23 (31.1)6 (22.2)17 (36.2)0.32
 Interventions    
 Vasopressors53 (71.6)18 (66.7)35 (74.5)0.65
 Mechanical ventilation66 (89.2)21 (77.8)45 (95.7)0.05
 Renal replacement therapy31 (41.9)14 (51.9)17 (36.2)0.23
 Delay of efficient antifungal treatment, mean (SD)a9.5 (9.9)10.2 (8.7)8.9 (11.2)0.64
  1. Italic values indicate significance of P-value (P < 0.05)
  2. ENT ear-nose-throat, HSCT hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; SAPS2 simplified Acute Physiological Score 2, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, SOT solid organ transplantation
  3. aResults are expressed as mean (SD) and compared with Student’s t test